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You searched for subject:(transinfection). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Boston University

1. Yu, Xinwei. Plasmonic artificial virus nano-particles for probing virus-host cell interactions.

Degree: PhD, Chemistry, 2015, Boston University

Targeting of key events in viral infection pathways creates opportunities for virus disease prevention and therapy. Nanoparticles with well-defined surfaces are promising tools for the direct visualization of biological processes and for interrogating virus behavior that is usually determined by the synergistic interplay of multiple factors and involves various transient signaling steps. Smart nanoparticles mimicking enveloped viral particles are thus developed and tested in this work with the aim to de-couple key steps in human immune-deficiency virus HIV-1 trans-infection with an engineerable viral model system. Uni-lamellar liposomes resemble biological lipid bilayer membrane structures with tunable particle size, surface charge, and composition. Pretreatment with ganglioside-GM3-containing liposomes inhibited the binding of HIV-1 by dendritic cells, indicating an essential role for GM3 in virus binding. To equip the liposome based model systems with strong non bleaching optical properties, the membranes were in the next step assembled around noble metal nanoparticle core. Noble metal nanoparticles with a size of 20nm-100nm have extraordinarily large scattering cross-sections and enable prolonged tracking of even individual particles with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The plasmon resonance peak of near-field coupled gold nanoparticles red-shifts within decreasing interparticle separation. The distance dependent optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles were utilized for characterizing clustering levels of breast cancer cell marker protein CD24 and CD44 on immortalized cancer cell lines. These encouraging results supported the choice of gold nanoparticles as core for multi-modal artificial virus nanoparticles. Artificial virus nanoparticles combine the biological versatility of a self-assembled membrane with the unique optical properties of a nanoparticle core. We developed these hybrid materials specifically for the purpose of elucidating key steps of the glycoprotein independent binding and uptake of HIV-1 during trans-infection. Systematic validation experiments revealed that GM3 containing artificial virus nanoparticles (AVNs) recapitulate the initial capture and uptake of viruses by sialoadhesin CD169 presenting cells. The AVNs also reproduced the tendency of the virus to re-distribute into confined cluster spots in cell peripheral areas. Upon contact formation between T cell and DC, the AVNs developed a polarized distribution in which they enriched at the interface between DC and CD4+ T cells. The multimodality of the AVNs was instrumental in determining the detailed location and kinetics of the nanoparticles during the trans-infection process, proving the AVN system to be a unique model system to address key mechanistic questions in the infection pathway of enveloped virus particles.

Subjects/Keywords: Chemistry; Artificial virus; HIV-1; Nanotechnology; Plasmonic particles; Reverse engineering; Transinfection

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APA (6th Edition):

Yu, X. (2015). Plasmonic artificial virus nano-particles for probing virus-host cell interactions. (Doctoral Dissertation). Boston University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2144/14532

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Yu, Xinwei. “Plasmonic artificial virus nano-particles for probing virus-host cell interactions.” 2015. Doctoral Dissertation, Boston University. Accessed July 10, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/2144/14532.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Yu, Xinwei. “Plasmonic artificial virus nano-particles for probing virus-host cell interactions.” 2015. Web. 10 Jul 2020.

Vancouver:

Yu X. Plasmonic artificial virus nano-particles for probing virus-host cell interactions. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Boston University; 2015. [cited 2020 Jul 10]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2144/14532.

Council of Science Editors:

Yu X. Plasmonic artificial virus nano-particles for probing virus-host cell interactions. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Boston University; 2015. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2144/14532


Victoria University of Wellington

2. Russell, Jessica Francis Elizabeth Jane. An attempted transinfection of Wolbachia in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera).

Degree: 2018, Victoria University of Wellington

Wolbachia, an intracellular endosymbiont found in up to 60% of arthropods, has been celebrated for its highly varied host-phenotype interactions. These effects are diverse, ranging from reproductive manipulations to obligate mutualisms and facultative symbiosis. These facultative effects include increased resistance to, and reduction in the ability to vector, a number of RNA viruses in insects. Artificial transinfection to mediate human vector-borne diseases such as Dengue fever and Zika virus in Aedes mosquitoes has had considerable success globally. However, using Wolbachia to mediate zoonotic disease directly in threatened species has not been examined. The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) has shown significant global population declines across the US and Europe, suffering from a diverse range of pathogens, including viral RNA and parasite vector networks. Wolbachia infection in honey bees has only been detected once and its effects have not been investigated. Here, I present the first attempted transinfection of Wolbachia in the Western honey bee using established transinfection protocols. The natural, but rarely found, Wolbachia infection reported in A. mellifera was examined against a robust phylogeny of all existing Wolbachia supergroups, a feat that has not been updated in the literature since 2015. I discovered Wolbachia infection in Ancistrocerus gazella, the European tube wasp, where it has never been observed. I isolated the natural Wolbachia strain hosted by Drosophila melanogaster (wMel ) and more than 1200 individuals from a range of honey bee life stages (from eggs to adults) were used as potential Wolbachia recipients using sound microinjection protocols. Additionally, I present a novel transinfection avenue utilizing artificial insemination and honey bee breeding using Wolbachia-inoculated drone semen. When no individuals were successfully infected with Wolbachia in F0 or F1, I investigated the expression of several antimicrobial peptides to characterize the immune response in young larvae to Wolbachia microinjection. There was a significant upregulation of apidaecin when injected with live Wolbachia, but not heat-treated bacteria, which has never been reported in host immune response to Wolbachia previously. The findings presented in this study highlight the importance of Wolbachia strain selection, immune response to Wolbachia, and the potential requirement for cell line culture in future transinfection attempts into A. mellifera. These findings will help inform future transinfection attempts, which are encouraged. Advisors/Committee Members: Lester, Phil.

Subjects/Keywords: microinjection; embryo; endosymbiont; honey bee; Wolbachia; transinfection; host-phenotype interactions

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Russell, J. F. E. J. (2018). An attempted transinfection of Wolbachia in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera). (Masters Thesis). Victoria University of Wellington. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10063/7838

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Russell, Jessica Francis Elizabeth Jane. “An attempted transinfection of Wolbachia in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera).” 2018. Masters Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington. Accessed July 10, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10063/7838.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Russell, Jessica Francis Elizabeth Jane. “An attempted transinfection of Wolbachia in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera).” 2018. Web. 10 Jul 2020.

Vancouver:

Russell JFEJ. An attempted transinfection of Wolbachia in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera). [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Victoria University of Wellington; 2018. [cited 2020 Jul 10]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10063/7838.

Council of Science Editors:

Russell JFEJ. An attempted transinfection of Wolbachia in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera). [Masters Thesis]. Victoria University of Wellington; 2018. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10063/7838


University of Queensland

3. Wu, Chen. Characterization of Wolbachia infections from native Australian mosquitoes.

Degree: School of Medicine, 2020, University of Queensland

Subjects/Keywords: Wolbachia; Mosquito; Arbovirus; Phylogenetics; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Vector competence; Transinfection; 0605 Microbiology; 0608 Zoology

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Wu, C. (2020). Characterization of Wolbachia infections from native Australian mosquitoes. (Thesis). University of Queensland. Retrieved from http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:822

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Wu, Chen. “Characterization of Wolbachia infections from native Australian mosquitoes.” 2020. Thesis, University of Queensland. Accessed July 10, 2020. http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:822.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Wu, Chen. “Characterization of Wolbachia infections from native Australian mosquitoes.” 2020. Web. 10 Jul 2020.

Vancouver:

Wu C. Characterization of Wolbachia infections from native Australian mosquitoes. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Queensland; 2020. [cited 2020 Jul 10]. Available from: http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:822.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Wu C. Characterization of Wolbachia infections from native Australian mosquitoes. [Thesis]. University of Queensland; 2020. Available from: http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:822

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.