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You searched for subject:(stygofauna). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of Adelaide

1. Bradford, Tessa Margaret. Modes of speciation in subterranean diving beetles from a single calcrete aquifer in Central Western Australia.

Degree: 2010, University of Adelaide

Calcrete aquifers from the Yilgarn region in central Western Australia‘s arid zone contain a highly diverse range of obligate groundwater invertebrate species (stygofauna), with many endemic to single calcretes. Phylogenetic studies on the diving beetles from the Yilgarn calcretes suggest a scenario of invasion of the subterranean environment by several surface dwelling ancestors during aridification of the region since the Miocene. This system is ideal for examining modes of speciation within a closed calcrete body and in particular the relative roles of allopatric, parapatric and sympatric speciation in the generation of diving beetle (Dytiscidae) species diversity. Previous phylogenetic analyses have identified 13 independent cases of sympatric sister species pairs of large and small diving beetles in separate calcretes, suggesting the potential for their speciation in sympatry as a result of ecological niche partitioning. A single calcrete at Sturt Meadows contains a sympatric sister triplet of large and small diving beetles (Paroster macrosturtensis, P. mesosturtensis, P microsturtensis), and can be accessed by an extensive grid of mineral exploration bores (3.5km², 115 bores), allowing intensive sampling for population genetic studies and biodiversity assessment. Comparative phylogeographic analyses by others on these Paroster beetle species found no evidence for long term allopatric processes operating within the calcrete, although any fragmentation event that could have led to the evolution of the three beetle species may not have persisted post-speciation, and thus would not been seen in their gene genealogies. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that the three beetle species at Sturt Meadows may have evolved by sympatric speciation due to trophic niche partitioning. Two main approaches were used to achieve this aim. First, whether the different beetle species have different trophic niches was determined and, second, whether micro-allopatric processes, such as fragmentation events, may have led to the evolution of the three beetle species was investigated. To detect evidence for such fragmentation events, a comparative phylogeography of chiltoniid amphipods in the Sturt Meadows calcrete was undertaken. A DNA barcoding framework was established for the macro-invertebrates in the Sturt Meadows calcrete, in order to obtain sequence information on potential prey groups for the diving beetles. A 623-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene was amplified from stygofauna plus terrestrial organisms that were found in the calcrete. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of 12 divergent monophyletic groups of haplotypes, including three unrelated lineages of chiltoniid amphipod that are morphologically cryptic. Allozyme analyses on the amphipods showed them to be three species that can be separated at multiple allozyme loci. Spatial variation in genetic diversity was assessed for the chiltoniid amphipods, enabling a comparative phylogeography of the three… Advisors/Committee Members: Cooper, Steven John Baynard (advisor), Austin, Andrew Donald (advisor), School of Earth and Environmental Sciences : Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (school).

Subjects/Keywords: stygofauna; phylogeography; DNA barcoding; food-webs

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Bradford, T. M. (2010). Modes of speciation in subterranean diving beetles from a single calcrete aquifer in Central Western Australia. (Thesis). University of Adelaide. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2440/61313

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Bradford, Tessa Margaret. “Modes of speciation in subterranean diving beetles from a single calcrete aquifer in Central Western Australia.” 2010. Thesis, University of Adelaide. Accessed January 20, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/61313.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Bradford, Tessa Margaret. “Modes of speciation in subterranean diving beetles from a single calcrete aquifer in Central Western Australia.” 2010. Web. 20 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Bradford TM. Modes of speciation in subterranean diving beetles from a single calcrete aquifer in Central Western Australia. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Adelaide; 2010. [cited 2020 Jan 20]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/61313.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Bradford TM. Modes of speciation in subterranean diving beetles from a single calcrete aquifer in Central Western Australia. [Thesis]. University of Adelaide; 2010. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/61313

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


Edith Cowan University

2. Perina, Giulia. Ancient origins of a diverse stygofaunal group: The Australian Bathynellidae (Crustacea).

Degree: 2019, Edith Cowan University

Research on subterranean fauna on all continents has highlighted often high levels of endemism, for both troglobionts (terrestrial subterranean organisms) and stygobionts (organisms living in groundwater). In Australia, particularly in the arid zones of Western Australia, a rich hypogean assemblage has been discovered in the past few decades, largely due to surveys required as part of environmental impact assessments for, and imposed conditions on, mining operations. Bathynellidae (Crustacea) are part of the stygofaunal community, but to-date they are poorly understood, mainly because their conservative morphology, small size and delicate exoskeleton make their dissection, observation and study very difficult. Additionally, the incomplete description of the type genus and species of the family (Bathynella natans) have led to misidentifications and taxonomic/systematic uncertainties. Prior to this contribution, only one species of Bathynellidae had been described from Australia, and knowledge on their morphology, species/genera and distributional boundaries, inter- intraspecific variability, and origins were very limited. The overall aim of this research is to investigate diversity, patterns of distribution, and biogeographical history of Bathynellidae in Australia, focussing on the arid zones of Western Australia (particularly on the Pilbara region).The abundance of material already collected by different companies allowed a thorough morphological and molecular examination of many specimens. The study of multiple taxa occurring in different aquifers of the same and different catchments is carried out to explore intra-interspecific variability, species and distributional boundaries, and evolutionary histories. A molecular phylogeny including representative taxa from different continents is also built to put the Australian fauna into a worldwide context. Four new species and genera (Pilbaranella ethelensis, Fortescuenella serenitatis, Anguillanella callawaensis, and Muccanella cundalinensis) have been described, clarifying morphological and molecular intra- and interspecific boundaries. These represent the first four species described for Western Australia. One new subfamily, nine new genera, and 23 new species are recognised through molecular species delineation and preliminary morphological analysis. All species and most genera studied appear restricted to single aquifer systems in particular areas of a catchment. The molecular phylogeny of the Australian Bathynellidae indicates a complex history. The molecular clock analysis suggests that aridification processes only partly influenced the diversification, while most of their diversity predate the establishment of the drought climate. The results indicate very old origins dated back to the end of Devonian-early Carboniferous, and a substantial increase in the rate of diversification during the Triassic-Jurassic period, which could represent multiple freshwater invasions, facilitated perhaps by sea level fluctuations. A consequent dispersion thanks to a much wetter…

Subjects/Keywords: Bathynellidae; Crustacea; phylogeny; new species; Australia; stygofauna; DNA; Biology; Life Sciences

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Perina, G. (2019). Ancient origins of a diverse stygofaunal group: The Australian Bathynellidae (Crustacea). (Thesis). Edith Cowan University. Retrieved from https://ro.ecu.edu.au/theses/2263

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Perina, Giulia. “Ancient origins of a diverse stygofaunal group: The Australian Bathynellidae (Crustacea).” 2019. Thesis, Edith Cowan University. Accessed January 20, 2020. https://ro.ecu.edu.au/theses/2263.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Perina, Giulia. “Ancient origins of a diverse stygofaunal group: The Australian Bathynellidae (Crustacea).” 2019. Web. 20 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Perina G. Ancient origins of a diverse stygofaunal group: The Australian Bathynellidae (Crustacea). [Internet] [Thesis]. Edith Cowan University; 2019. [cited 2020 Jan 20]. Available from: https://ro.ecu.edu.au/theses/2263.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Perina G. Ancient origins of a diverse stygofaunal group: The Australian Bathynellidae (Crustacea). [Thesis]. Edith Cowan University; 2019. Available from: https://ro.ecu.edu.au/theses/2263

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


University of Adelaide

3. Hyde, Josephine Charlotte Anne. Investigating the internal and external ecology of six subterranean diving beetle species from the Yilgarn region of Central Australia.

Degree: 2018, University of Adelaide

The ecology of subterranean ecosystems and stygofauna (subterranean aquatic animals) has largely been unexplored in an Australian context. The Yilgarn region of Western Australia is known as a biodiversity hotspot in relation to stygofauna from isolated calcrete aquifers, and it is home to the most diverse assemblage of subterranean, predatory diving beetles in the world. This study used extensive grids of boreholes to access calcrete aquifers at Sturt Meadows and Laverton Downs pastoral stations to investigate how subterranean species interact with their external and internal environment, focusing on six subterranean beetle species. A mix of traditional ecological monitoring and next-generation sequencing methods were employed to examine the following specific questions: What are the types of prey available in these calcrete systems and how do they change in abundance over time? What are the natural gut microbial communities associated with these predatory beetle species? Moreover, can metagenomic analyses be used to identify trophic differences among species, including adults and larvae, and determine whether beetle species eat other beetle species? Ecological monitoring over an 11-year period identified that rainfall and, in particular, major recharge events are important for the diversity and distribution of stygofauna within the calcrete at Sturt Meadows. Average taxon richness was highest shortly after periods of high rainfall, and when dominant taxa (i.e. amphipods and copepods) were excluded, evenness decreased after both high and low rainfall suggesting that dominant taxa are an important factor driving the system. Common taxa (i.e. amphipods and copepods) within the calcrete had broad distributions and high abundance levels, while rare taxa (oligochaete worms) had restricted distributions and low abundances. All taxon groups had lower abundances and narrower distributions after periods of intermediate and low rainfall. Over the 11-year period, the majority of boreholes sampled did not show changes in evenness, suggesting that the Sturt Meadows calcrete is a reasonably stable ecosystem with episodic fluctuations, most likely attributed to rainfall events. The gut microbiome was investigated in six beetle species from two separate aquifers using random shotgun sequencing (metagenomic analyses). The bacterial and viral communities were investigated separately, but the investigation showed similar results as follows: In both the viral and bacterial analyses the microbial communities varied greatly by location and there was a distinct signature in the microbial communities depending on whether samples were collected from aquifers or laboratory aquaria. There were also distinct differences among the beetle species and their stage of development (adult versus larvae), which are most likely accounted for by trophic differences among the beetles. In both the bacterial and viral analyses a large number of the sequences were novel and unable to be identified, suggesting major differences in their microbiome compared… Advisors/Committee Members: Cooper, Steven (advisor), Austin, Andrew (advisor), Munguia, Pablo (advisor), School of Biological Sciences (school).

Subjects/Keywords: Subterranean; stygofauna; dytiscid beetles; mitochondrial genomes; gut microbiome; gut virome; molecular ecology

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Hyde, J. C. A. (2018). Investigating the internal and external ecology of six subterranean diving beetle species from the Yilgarn region of Central Australia. (Thesis). University of Adelaide. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2440/117938

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Hyde, Josephine Charlotte Anne. “Investigating the internal and external ecology of six subterranean diving beetle species from the Yilgarn region of Central Australia.” 2018. Thesis, University of Adelaide. Accessed January 20, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/117938.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Hyde, Josephine Charlotte Anne. “Investigating the internal and external ecology of six subterranean diving beetle species from the Yilgarn region of Central Australia.” 2018. Web. 20 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Hyde JCA. Investigating the internal and external ecology of six subterranean diving beetle species from the Yilgarn region of Central Australia. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Adelaide; 2018. [cited 2020 Jan 20]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/117938.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Hyde JCA. Investigating the internal and external ecology of six subterranean diving beetle species from the Yilgarn region of Central Australia. [Thesis]. University of Adelaide; 2018. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/117938

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.