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University of Minnesota

1. North, Eric. Influence of Climate, Construction Disturbance, and Site Factors on Tree Resistance, Resilience, and Performance in Urban Forests.

Degree: PhD, Natural Resources Science and Management, 2017, University of Minnesota

As urban areas increase in physical size, distribution, and population, increased importance will be placed on the benefits provided by trees in the urban forest (Dwyer, et al., 2000). Appropriate tree species selection based on environmental criteria is critical in order to achieve the larger and longer lived trees (Chacalo, et al., 1994) needed in urban landscapes. An analysis of urban planting sites can be difficult and costly when dealing with the highly variable nature of the urban environment. Site analysis approaches that model tree growth using easily obtainable site variables, such as soil surface, planting space width, and regional climatic factors are crucial for developing species specific site selection criteria designed to maximize tree size and longevity. Tree longevity is a function of species, adjacent land use, and tree health (Nowak, et al., 2004). The long-term performance of urban trees is a complex issue involving many factors from species to site conditions to climate factors and construction activities. Yet our current understanding of appropriate tree selection to maximize benefits over the long-term is limited. There is a gap in the literature on the long-term influence on tree growth and performance following infrastructure construction activities, and the effect of urban site characteristics. While climate in the urban environment is well documented over the life-span of the majority of living urban street and park trees (~28 years on average (Roman & Scatena, 2011)), the impacts to tree growth related to climate in combination with urban environmental factors is less well understood. Larger trees have been shown to provide greater benefits (McPherson E. G., 2003; Scott & Betters, 2000), yet our understanding of what constitutes a “larger” urban tree in terms of specific benefits has not been well defined. The research in this dissertation examined the influence of climate, construction, and physical environment on the growth of urban trees primarily through the use of tree ring analysis for trees in the cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Chapter 1 examines the influence climate over the past 30 years on the growth of municipally-managed street and park trees. Chapter 2 investigates the effect of sidewalk construction on growth of street trees that survived the initial construction. Finally, chapter 3 evaluates four different approaches to quantifying tree performance in urban environments. Minneapolis and Saint Paul municipal forestry departments provided inventory data for their managed park and street trees to allow for selection of genera, species, and individual trees planted in both cities. Acer platanoides, Celtis occidentalis, Gleditsia triacanthos and Tilia spp. were selected as tree genera and species commonly planted in Minnesota and elsewhere in the Midwest of the United States. The results presented in Chapter 1 compare growth of trees in parks to trees growing along city streets using annual basal area increment determined from tree cores. Additionally, the…

Subjects/Keywords: street tree construction; tree rings; urban forestry; urban tree growth; urban tree longevity; urban tree site index

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APA (6th Edition):

North, E. (2017). Influence of Climate, Construction Disturbance, and Site Factors on Tree Resistance, Resilience, and Performance in Urban Forests. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Minnesota. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11299/188916

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

North, Eric. “Influence of Climate, Construction Disturbance, and Site Factors on Tree Resistance, Resilience, and Performance in Urban Forests.” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Minnesota. Accessed August 18, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/11299/188916.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

North, Eric. “Influence of Climate, Construction Disturbance, and Site Factors on Tree Resistance, Resilience, and Performance in Urban Forests.” 2017. Web. 18 Aug 2019.

Vancouver:

North E. Influence of Climate, Construction Disturbance, and Site Factors on Tree Resistance, Resilience, and Performance in Urban Forests. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Minnesota; 2017. [cited 2019 Aug 18]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11299/188916.

Council of Science Editors:

North E. Influence of Climate, Construction Disturbance, and Site Factors on Tree Resistance, Resilience, and Performance in Urban Forests. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Minnesota; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11299/188916

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