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University of Helsinki

1. Toivonen, Johanna. Parkinsonin taudin geneettiset eläinmallit.

Degree: Farmaceutiska fakulteten, 2012, University of Helsinki

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder where dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra are gradually destroyed. Less than 10% of Parkinson's disease cases are genetic. For example mutations in α-synuclein, LRRK2-, parkin-, PINK1- and DJ-1 are known to cause Parkinson's disease. There is still no curative treatment for Parkinson's disease. Alpha-synuclein is linked to Parkinson's disease through Lewy bodies. Three point mutations causing Parkinson's disease have been found in a gene coding α-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein has been expressed in Drosophila melanogaster, C. elegans and mouse. Main function of LRRK2-protein is thought to be kinase activity. Mutations in LRRK2-gene are the most common known cause of Parkinson's disease. LRRK has been expressed in Drosophila melanogaster, C. elegans and mouse. LRRK2 knock-out Drosophila melanogaster and mouse have also been studied. Parkin is a neuroprotective protein and its deficiency results in a loss of neurons in substantia nigra. Mutations in Parkin cause 50% of recessive Parkinson's disease. Parkin knock-out Drosophila melanogaster and mouse and Drosophila melanogaster and mouse expressing human Parkin are Parkin animal models. PINK1 is a mitochondrial protein coded by nucleus. DJ-1 is thought to have a part in mitochondria maintenance and protection. Both PINK1- and DJ-1 knock-out Drosophila melanogaster and mouse have been studied. None of the genetic animal models of Parkinson's disease is identical to symptoms and pathology of human Parkinson's disease. The purpose of the experimental part of this thesis was to examine non-drug induced behavioural test and Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. CDNF protects and restores dopaminergic neurons. The non-drug induced behavioural tests included in this study were stepping test, cylinder test and staircase test. An old and widely used drug induced test for Parkinson's disease, amphetamine-induced rotation test, has problems that have led to a seek for replacing and complementary test methods. In amphetamine-induced rotation test dopamine agonist is given to a unilaterally 6-OHDA lesioned animal. The agonist causes rotational behaviour that can be measured with designed equipment. The stepping test measures forelimb akinesia in rats. In the experimental setting the rat is moved sideways when it is held only one front paw on a table and adjusting steps are counted. In the cylinder test front paw preference is measured. In the experimental setting the rat is placed in a transparent cylinder and the front paw preference is counted on rears and on ground contacts after a rear. The staircase test measures front paw coordination and function. In the experimental setting the number of sucrose pellets picked up from a double staircase is counted. There were no significant differences between lesioned groups in stepping test, cylinder test or in staircase test. It is possible that the 6-OHDA lesion used in the experiment was not extensive enough. Different non-drug induced…

Subjects/Keywords: CDNF; Parkinson's disease; genetic animal models; amphetamine induced rotation; stepping test; cylinder test; staircase test; Parkinsonin tauti; geneettiset eläinmallit; amfetamiini-indusoitu pyörimiskoe; stepping-koe; sylinterikoe; staircase-koe; Farmakologi; Pharmacology; Farmakologia; CDNF; Parkinson's disease; genetic animal models; amphetamine induced rotation; stepping test; cylinder test; staircase test; Parkinsonin tauti; geneettiset eläinmallit; amfetamiini-indusoitu pyörimiskoe; stepping-koe; sylinterikoe; staircase-koe

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APA (6th Edition):

Toivonen, J. (2012). Parkinsonin taudin geneettiset eläinmallit. (Masters Thesis). University of Helsinki. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10138/34883

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Toivonen, Johanna. “Parkinsonin taudin geneettiset eläinmallit.” 2012. Masters Thesis, University of Helsinki. Accessed February 20, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10138/34883.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Toivonen, Johanna. “Parkinsonin taudin geneettiset eläinmallit.” 2012. Web. 20 Feb 2020.

Vancouver:

Toivonen J. Parkinsonin taudin geneettiset eläinmallit. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. University of Helsinki; 2012. [cited 2020 Feb 20]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/34883.

Council of Science Editors:

Toivonen J. Parkinsonin taudin geneettiset eläinmallit. [Masters Thesis]. University of Helsinki; 2012. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/34883

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