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You searched for subject:(speech surrogates). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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1. Poss, Nicholas. Hmong Music and Language Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Investigation.

Degree: PhD, Music, 2012, The Ohio State University

Speech surrogacy, which includes the performance of verbal messages on musical instruments, is found in a variety of cultures. The developing field of music and language cognition can benefit from the study of these communicative forms, which confound our expectations of the boundaries between speech and music. Previous studies have focused on semiotic relationships of similarity between musical sound and speech. While this type of analysis can suggest strategies for decoding messages, it cannot explain how listeners make use of this information. Using methodology derived from psycholinguistics, this dissertation investigates speech surrogate cognition from the perspective of Hmong culture to find out how listeners understand verbal messages encoded in performances on aerophones called raj. In one experiment, musical phrases of varying lengths were presented to skilled listeners to investigate the strategies used in understanding performances. The results show that listeners are highly successful at identifying phrases. For ambiguous words, listeners relied mainly on the established relationships between musical pitch and lexical tone to infer meaning rather than broad distinctions between types of syllable onsets. This demonstrates a problem with the semiotic approach to analyzing speech surrogates: listeners do not necessarily make use of everything encoded in the signal. Finally, there were different reponse patterns for phrases of different lengths, indicating that the context of messages affects how listeners interpret them.The second experiment looked at the effect of individual pitches on lexical selection to see if instrumental sounds might speed access to relevant lexical items. An auditory priming paradigm was used in which subjects had to repeat words and pseudowords in the Hmong language. These target items were primed by musical sounds and pitch contours derived from spoken words. The primes either matched or mismatched the targets and were compared against white noise in the envelope filter of a spoken syllable to examine the effect on reaction time. It was hypothesized that words primed by matched musical sounds and pitch contours would be repeated more quickly than words primed by mismatched sounds if the relationship of similarity acted upon the mental lexicon. The results showed no effect for matched or mismatched primes but did show an effect for primes containing pitch content versus the control. Pitched primes speeded reaction times to both words and pseudowords, suggesting that the effect is not related to lexical processing. It is possible that the pitched sounds primed areas of the pre-motor cortex, which is involved on planning movements of the vocal tract, resulting in a faster response. This effect was also found in subsequent experiments with speakers of another tonal language (Mandarin) who do not practice speech surrogacy.This research demonstrates the benefit of interdisciplinary research that includes an ethnographic approach. Music and speech are not so neatly categorized in many… Advisors/Committee Members: Will, Udo (Advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Music; ethnomusicology; music and language; Hmong; music; speech surrogates

…7 1.3: Studying musical speech surrogates with experiments… …through the sound of instruments, usually referred to as speech surrogates. Such redundancy… …Stern, speech surrogates are the “conversion of human speech into equivalent sounds for… …boundaries of musical speech surrogates provide opportunities for understanding how music and… …language are related culturally and cognitively. Most studies of speech surrogates examine them… 

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APA (6th Edition):

Poss, N. (2012). Hmong Music and Language Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Investigation. (Doctoral Dissertation). The Ohio State University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1332472729

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Poss, Nicholas. “Hmong Music and Language Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Investigation.” 2012. Doctoral Dissertation, The Ohio State University. Accessed August 15, 2020. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1332472729.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Poss, Nicholas. “Hmong Music and Language Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Investigation.” 2012. Web. 15 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Poss N. Hmong Music and Language Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Investigation. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. The Ohio State University; 2012. [cited 2020 Aug 15]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1332472729.

Council of Science Editors:

Poss N. Hmong Music and Language Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Investigation. [Doctoral Dissertation]. The Ohio State University; 2012. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1332472729


The Ohio State University

2. Cheong, Yong Jeon. Worlds of Musics: Cognitive Ethnomusicological Inquiries on Experience of Time and Space in Human Music-making.

Degree: PhD, Music, 2019, The Ohio State University

This dissertation is a cognitive ethnomusicological investigation regarding how each individual creates his or her own world via different musical behaviors. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to a model of our sense of time and space from an interdisciplinary perspective. There is a long tradition that we use two cognitive constructs, `time’ and `space’, when talking about the world. In order to understand how we humans construct our own worlds cognitively via music-making, I first distinguished two behaviors in music performance (singing vs. instrument playing). I looked at how the different modes of music-making shape our body in a distinctive way and modifies our perception of time and space. For the cognitive sections (chapters 2 & 3), I discussed not only building blocks of temporal experience but also features of space pertaining to the body. In order to build a comparative perspective (chapter 4), I examined various ancient understandings of time and space in different cultures. In terms of music evolution (chapter 5), I looked at the transformative power of music-making and speculated about potentially different modulatory processes between singing and instrument playing. The discussion in the cognitive sections provided the basic ideas for my `Hear Your Touch’ project consisting of two behavioral experiments (chapter 6). I focused not only on two elements of temporal experience: 1) event detection, and 2) perception of temporal order, but also on several elements of spatial experience: 1) body space, 2) audio-tactile integration, and 3) space pertaining to hands. Both simple reaction time and temporal order judgment experiments provide supporting evidence for differences in spatiotemporal processing between musicians and non-musicians as well as between vocalists and instrumentalists. The simple reaction time experiment suggests that instrumental musical training contributes to enhanced multisensory integration through co-activation. The temporal order judgment experiment indicates not only that musical training changes response to audio-tactile stimuli but also that instrumental training modifies the perception of temporal order. Compared to non-musicians and vocalists, instrumentalists showed significantly lower absolute and difference thresholds. These demonstrate different effects of specific musical training on our perceptions of time and space. My experimental findings support that, although they are often considered as distinctive cognitive constructs (chapter 4), time and space are established together through our bodily experiences. In connection with music evolution (chapter 5), it is highly likely that the use of both vocal and non-vocal sounds in a communication system might have had significant influence on the development of human cognition by transforming our bodies, our perception of, and our action toward the world. This work suggests that there are many musics that allow us to have different worlds. Advisors/Committee Members: Udo, Will (Advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Music; Cognitive Psychology; Philosophy of Science; Evolution and Development; Comparative; music-making; time; space; specific music training; cultural factor; spatiotemporal processing; multisensory integration; audio-tactile; temporal order judgment; simple reaction time; peripersonal space; music evolution; design features; speech surrogates

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Cheong, Y. J. (2019). Worlds of Musics: Cognitive Ethnomusicological Inquiries on Experience of Time and Space in Human Music-making. (Doctoral Dissertation). The Ohio State University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1555598154844572

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Cheong, Yong Jeon. “Worlds of Musics: Cognitive Ethnomusicological Inquiries on Experience of Time and Space in Human Music-making.” 2019. Doctoral Dissertation, The Ohio State University. Accessed August 15, 2020. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1555598154844572.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Cheong, Yong Jeon. “Worlds of Musics: Cognitive Ethnomusicological Inquiries on Experience of Time and Space in Human Music-making.” 2019. Web. 15 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Cheong YJ. Worlds of Musics: Cognitive Ethnomusicological Inquiries on Experience of Time and Space in Human Music-making. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. The Ohio State University; 2019. [cited 2020 Aug 15]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1555598154844572.

Council of Science Editors:

Cheong YJ. Worlds of Musics: Cognitive Ethnomusicological Inquiries on Experience of Time and Space in Human Music-making. [Doctoral Dissertation]. The Ohio State University; 2019. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1555598154844572


University of Oxford

3. Little, M. A. Biomechanically informed nonlinear speech signal processing.

Degree: PhD, 2007, University of Oxford

Linear digital signal processing based around linear, time-invariant systems theory finds substantial application in speech processing. The linear acoustic source-filter theory of speech production provides ready biomechanical justification for using linear techniques. Nonetheless, biomechanical studies surveyed in this thesis display significant nonlinearity and non-Gaussinity, casting doubt on the linear model of speech production. In order therefore to test the appropriateness of linear systems assumptions for speech production, surrogate data techniques can be used. This study uncovers systematic flaws in the design and use of exiting surrogate data techniques, and, by making novel improvements, develops a more reliable technique. Collating the largest set of speech signals to-date compatible with this new technique, this study next demonstrates that the linear assumptions are not appropriate for all speech signals. Detailed analysis shows that while vowel production from healthy subjects cannot be explained within the linear assumptions, consonants can. Linear assumptions also fail for most vowel production by pathological subjects with voice disorders. Combining this new empirical evidence with information from biomechanical studies concludes that the most parsimonious model for speech production, explaining all these findings in one unified set of mathematical assumptions, is a stochastic nonlinear, non-Gaussian model, which subsumes both Gaussian linear and deterministic nonlinear models. As a case study, to demonstrate the engineering value of nonlinear signal processing techniques based upon the proposed biomechanically-informed, unified model, the study investigates the biomedical engineering application of disordered voice measurement. A new state space recurrence measure is devised and combined with an existing measure of the fractal scaling properties of stochastic signals. Using a simple pattern classifier these two measures outperform all combinations of linear methods for the detection of voice disorders on a large database of pathological and healthy vowels, making explicit the effectiveness of such biomechanically-informed, nonlinear signal processing techniques.

Subjects/Keywords: 621.3822; Dynamical systems and ergodic theory (mathematics); Mathematical biology; Pattern recognition (statistics); Biomedical engineering; Information engineering; nonlinearity; speech; voice; signal; time series; discriminant analysis; surrogates

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Little, M. A. (2007). Biomechanically informed nonlinear speech signal processing. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Oxford. Retrieved from http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:6f5b84fb-ab0b-42e1-9ac2-5f6acc9c5b80 ; https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.442859

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Little, M A. “Biomechanically informed nonlinear speech signal processing.” 2007. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oxford. Accessed August 15, 2020. http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:6f5b84fb-ab0b-42e1-9ac2-5f6acc9c5b80 ; https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.442859.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Little, M A. “Biomechanically informed nonlinear speech signal processing.” 2007. Web. 15 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Little MA. Biomechanically informed nonlinear speech signal processing. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Oxford; 2007. [cited 2020 Aug 15]. Available from: http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:6f5b84fb-ab0b-42e1-9ac2-5f6acc9c5b80 ; https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.442859.

Council of Science Editors:

Little MA. Biomechanically informed nonlinear speech signal processing. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Oxford; 2007. Available from: http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:6f5b84fb-ab0b-42e1-9ac2-5f6acc9c5b80 ; https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.442859

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