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You searched for subject:(organic gunshot residue). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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1. Corbin, Inge. Analysis of Improvised Explosives by Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry and Microfluidic Techniques.

Degree: PhD, Chemistry, 2016, Florida International University

Improvised explosives may be based on smokeless gunpowder, fertilizers, or inorganic oxidizers such as nitrate (NO3-), chlorate (ClO3-), and perchlorate (ClO4-) salts. Identification is a priority for the military and law enforcement but due to their varying physical properties and complexity, identification can be challenging. Consequently, three methods have been developed to aid in presumptive and confirmatory detection. Smokeless powder contains plasticizers, stabilizers, dyes, opacifiers, flash suppressants, and other compounds. Identification of these additives can narrow down or identify the brands of smokeless powder used in a device. Fourteen organic smokeless powder components were identified by capillary electrochromatography (CEC) using a hexyl acrylate monolithic stationary phase coupled to UV detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The CEC-UV method efficiently detects all 14 organic components, while TOF-MS provides sensitivity and selectivity. A mixed smokeless powder component standard was analyzed and the composition of the additive package in commercial smokeless powders determined. Detection limits ranged from 1.0 – 3.2 μg/ml and analysis time was 18 minutes. Second, a procedure for the detection of urea nitrate (UN) and ammonium nitrate (AN) by infusion electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Solubility tests were performed to find a solvent for both UN and AN that did not cause UN to dissociate. Two adduct ions were detected for each explosive: for AN, m/z 178 [2AN+NH4]+ and m/z 258 [3AN+NH4]+ ions, and for UN m/z 185 [UN+NO3]− and m/z 248 [UN+HNO3+NO3]−. Specificity of the analysis was examined by mixing the explosives with various salts and interferents. Gas-phase adduct ions were useful in distinguishing between ion pairs and mixed salts. Finally, a paper microfluidic device (PMD) was developed as a presumptive test using colorimetric reagents for the detection of ions associated with improvised explosives. The device was configured to test for nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), chlorate (ClO3-), perchlorate (ClO4-), and urea nitrate (UN). Proof of concept was performed using extracts of soil containing inorganic oxidizers. The development of these analytical methods allows the detection of smokeless powder components, fertilizers, and oxidizers and expands the suite of analytical methods available for the analysis of improvised explosives. Advisors/Committee Members: Bruce McCord, Yong Cai, Stewart D'Alessio, Piero Gardinali, Joong-Ho Moon.

Subjects/Keywords: Mass spectrometry; electrospray; improvised explosives; urea nitrate; ammonium nitrate; electrochromatography; smokeless powder; organic gunshot residue; paper microfluidics; Analytical Chemistry; Chemistry

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APA (6th Edition):

Corbin, I. (2016). Analysis of Improvised Explosives by Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry and Microfluidic Techniques. (Doctoral Dissertation). Florida International University. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/2551 ; 10.25148/etd.FIDC000771 ; FIDC000771

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Corbin, Inge. “Analysis of Improvised Explosives by Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry and Microfluidic Techniques.” 2016. Doctoral Dissertation, Florida International University. Accessed August 11, 2020. https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/2551 ; 10.25148/etd.FIDC000771 ; FIDC000771.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Corbin, Inge. “Analysis of Improvised Explosives by Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry and Microfluidic Techniques.” 2016. Web. 11 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Corbin I. Analysis of Improvised Explosives by Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry and Microfluidic Techniques. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida International University; 2016. [cited 2020 Aug 11]. Available from: https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/2551 ; 10.25148/etd.FIDC000771 ; FIDC000771.

Council of Science Editors:

Corbin I. Analysis of Improvised Explosives by Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry and Microfluidic Techniques. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Florida International University; 2016. Available from: https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/2551 ; 10.25148/etd.FIDC000771 ; FIDC000771

2. Casper, Brent. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR THE MASS SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC GUNSHOT RESIDUE FROM CLOTHING.

Degree: 2015, University of Kentucky

This dissertation will focus on the extraction of volatile organic compounds associated with gunshot residue from articles of clothing, followed by analysis with mass spectrometry. During the discharge of a weapon, a cloud of volatile organic gunshot residue (OGSR) is dispersed around a firearm. This will create a high probability of transfer between the OGSR and the clothing of individuals who are near a discharged weapon. The first part of this dissertation will be the development of a method for removal of volatile OGSR from articles of clothing. Extraction of OGSR will be completed by solid phase microextraction (SPME), followed by separation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Many parameters will require optimization for proper extraction of OGSR from articles of clothing. Following development of a SPME procedure, figures of merit were determined such as linearity and limits of detection/quantification, obtaining levels of detection of 0.206 ng/cm2 on a 100 cm2 cotton cloth. Applications of this extraction method were investigated including the determination of the distance OGSR travels from a discharged weapon and the extraction of OGSR with different clothing materials by SPME. The second part of this dissertation will focus on the development of an on-line solvent extraction method for removal of OGSR from articles of clothing, followed by analysis with paper spray mass spectrometry. Issues using SPME of certain types of clothing materials required the development of an alternative method for removal of OGSR from articles of clothing. Use of an on-line solvent extraction technique of OGSR from articles of clothing followed by analysis with paper spray mass spectrometry allowed for detection of OGSR at comparable levels to a headspace SPME procedure. Use of paper spray with an ion trap mass spectrometer permitted the soft ionization of OGSR compounds followed by tandem mass spectrometry to obtain structural information. Extraction of OGSR from articles of clothing has potential to determine if an individual was present during the discharge of a firearm. Extraction of OGSR from articles of clothing will provide an alternative to traditional methods of gunshot residue analysis currently in use.

Subjects/Keywords: Forensic Science; Mass Spectrometry; Organic Gunshot Residue; Solid Phase Microextraction; Criminalistics; Analytical Chemistry

…1 1.2 Organic Gunshot Residue… …Organic Gunshot Residue from Articles of Clothing by Solid Phase… …Chapter 3: Applications of the Extraction of Organic Gunshot Residue from Articles of Clothing… …221 v List of Tables Table 2.1 Compounds Associated with Organic Gunshot Residue… …dinitrodiphenylamine 4,4`-dinitrodiphenylamine Nitroglycerin N-Nitrosodiphenylamine Organic Gunshot Residue… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Casper, B. (2015). DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR THE MASS SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC GUNSHOT RESIDUE FROM CLOTHING. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Kentucky. Retrieved from https://uknowledge.uky.edu/chemistry_etds/48

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Casper, Brent. “DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR THE MASS SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC GUNSHOT RESIDUE FROM CLOTHING.” 2015. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Kentucky. Accessed August 11, 2020. https://uknowledge.uky.edu/chemistry_etds/48.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Casper, Brent. “DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR THE MASS SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC GUNSHOT RESIDUE FROM CLOTHING.” 2015. Web. 11 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Casper B. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR THE MASS SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC GUNSHOT RESIDUE FROM CLOTHING. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Kentucky; 2015. [cited 2020 Aug 11]. Available from: https://uknowledge.uky.edu/chemistry_etds/48.

Council of Science Editors:

Casper B. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR THE MASS SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC GUNSHOT RESIDUE FROM CLOTHING. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Kentucky; 2015. Available from: https://uknowledge.uky.edu/chemistry_etds/48

3. Thomas, Jennifer L. Method Development for the Analysis of Smokeless Powders and Organic Gunshot Residue by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

Degree: PhD, Chemistry, 2013, Florida International University

The goal of this project was to develop a rapid separation and detection method for analyzing organic compounds in smokeless powders and then test its applicability on gunshot residue (GSR) samples. In this project, a total of 20 common smokeless powder additives and their decomposition products were separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Some of the targeted compounds included diphenylamines, centralites, nitrotoluenes, nitroglycerin, and various phthalates. The compounds were ionized in the MS source using simultaneous positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) with negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in order to detect all compounds in a single analysis. The developed UPLC/MS/MS method was applied to commercially available smokeless powders and gunshot residue samples recovered from the hands of shooters, spent cartridges, and smokeless powder retrieved from unfired cartridges. Distinct compositions were identified for smokeless powders from different manufacturers and from separate manufacturing lots. The procedure also produced specific chemical profiles when tested on gunshot residues from different manufacturers. Overall, this thesis represents the development of a rapid and reproducible procedure capable of simultaneously detecting the widest possible range of components present in organic gunshot residue. Advisors/Committee Members: Bruce McCord, Kevin O'Shea, William Hearn, John Berry, DeEtta Mills.

Subjects/Keywords: Forensic Science; Smokeless Powder; Organic Gunshot Residue; Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography; Tandem Mass Spectrometry; Electrospray Ionization; Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization; Diphenylamine; Dinitrotoluene; Nitroglycerin; Analytical Chemistry; Other Chemistry

…possible range of components present in organic gunshot residue. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER… …83 Analysis of Organic Gunshot Residue Samples… …provides a rapid detection method for smokeless powders and organic gunshot residue analysis. A… …Powder GSR The organic constituents found in gunshot residue primarily arise from the smokeless… …organic gunshot residue is further augmented by the introduction of leadand heavy metal-free… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Thomas, J. L. (2013). Method Development for the Analysis of Smokeless Powders and Organic Gunshot Residue by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry. (Doctoral Dissertation). Florida International University. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/1017 ; 10.25148/etd.FI13121211 ; FI13121211

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Thomas, Jennifer L. “Method Development for the Analysis of Smokeless Powders and Organic Gunshot Residue by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry.” 2013. Doctoral Dissertation, Florida International University. Accessed August 11, 2020. https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/1017 ; 10.25148/etd.FI13121211 ; FI13121211.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Thomas, Jennifer L. “Method Development for the Analysis of Smokeless Powders and Organic Gunshot Residue by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry.” 2013. Web. 11 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Thomas JL. Method Development for the Analysis of Smokeless Powders and Organic Gunshot Residue by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida International University; 2013. [cited 2020 Aug 11]. Available from: https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/1017 ; 10.25148/etd.FI13121211 ; FI13121211.

Council of Science Editors:

Thomas JL. Method Development for the Analysis of Smokeless Powders and Organic Gunshot Residue by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Florida International University; 2013. Available from: https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/1017 ; 10.25148/etd.FI13121211 ; FI13121211

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