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You searched for subject:(nitrotriazolone). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of Iowa

1. Schroer, Hunter William. Biotransformation and photolysis of 2,4-dinitroanisole, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, and nitroguanidine.

Degree: PhD, Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2018, University of Iowa

Nitroaromatic explosives have contaminated millions of acres of soil and water across the globe since World War II with known mutagenic, carcinogenic, and ecotoxicological effects. Recently, the U.S. Army initiated a shift away from traditional explosive compounds, such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydrotrinitrotriazine (RDX), towards new, insensitive high explosive formulations. The new formulations approved for use include “IMX-101” and “IMX-104,” which contain 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), and nitroguanidine (NQ). These mixtures are less prone to accidental detonation making storage, transport, and implementation of these formulations safer for soldiers. Furthermore, initial research indicates that these compounds are less toxic than the older analogues. Despite the apparent benefits, the new explosives have higher solubility (approximately 3-300 times) than the compounds they are replacing, and NTO and NQ are fairly recalcitrant to aerobic biodegradation. The refractory nature and high solubility of the compounds raises concerns about leaching and water contamination considering the previous scale of environmental contamination from production and use of legacy explosives, while feasible strategies for cleaning up the new chemicals from soil and water have not been developed. Therefore, there is a critical need for understanding of the mechanisms of biodegradation these compounds will undergo in the environment and in engineered systems. In addition, a number of questions remain about the photochemistry of the compounds and how they may transform in sunlit surface water. Accordingly, this thesis examines biological transformations of DNAN and NTO in vegetative, fungal, and bacterial organisms, as well as photolysis of NTO and NQ in aqueous solution and DNAN in plant leaves. I identified 34 novel biotransformation products of DNAN using stable-isotope labeled DNAN and high resolution mass spectrometry. Most identified biotransformation products were the result of a nitro-group reduction as the first metabolic step. Arabidopsis plants, a Rhizobium bacterium, and a Penicillium fungus all further metabolized DNAN to produce large, conjugated compounds, and no mineralization was observed in the systems studied. All three organisms reduced both para- and ortho-nitro groups of DNAN, with a dramatic preference for ortho reduction. I found that photodegradation of DNAN and its plant metabolites within Arabidopsis leaves could impact the phytoremediation of DNAN and other contaminants. Soil slurries acclimated to nitroaromatic wastewater degraded DNAN with and without carbon and nitrogen amendments and NTO with added carbon. Organisms capable of degrading DNAN and NTO were isolated, and NTO was transformed to urea, amino-triazolone, and hydroxyl-triazolone. Photolysis of NTO sensitized singlet oxygen formation and yielded hydroxyl-triazolone, nitrite, nitrate, and ammonium. The rate of photolysis of NTO increased over the neutral pH range, and natural organic matter quenched… Advisors/Committee Members: Just, Craig L. (supervisor).

Subjects/Keywords: biotransformation; dinitroanisole; insensitive munitions; nitrotriazolone; photolysis; phytoremediation; Civil and Environmental Engineering

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APA (6th Edition):

Schroer, H. W. (2018). Biotransformation and photolysis of 2,4-dinitroanisole, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, and nitroguanidine. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Iowa. Retrieved from https://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/6274

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Schroer, Hunter William. “Biotransformation and photolysis of 2,4-dinitroanisole, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, and nitroguanidine.” 2018. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Iowa. Accessed November 21, 2019. https://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/6274.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Schroer, Hunter William. “Biotransformation and photolysis of 2,4-dinitroanisole, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, and nitroguanidine.” 2018. Web. 21 Nov 2019.

Vancouver:

Schroer HW. Biotransformation and photolysis of 2,4-dinitroanisole, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, and nitroguanidine. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Iowa; 2018. [cited 2019 Nov 21]. Available from: https://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/6274.

Council of Science Editors:

Schroer HW. Biotransformation and photolysis of 2,4-dinitroanisole, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, and nitroguanidine. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Iowa; 2018. Available from: https://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/6274


Texas A&M University

2. Fasano, Michaela Rose. Thermal Cook-off Study of Pressed Nitrotriazolone (NTO) Pellets.

Degree: 2017, Texas A&M University

As of today, no research has been performed to study the response of Compounded High Explosive Composite (CHEC) pellet arrays to fast or slow cook off. Cook-off tests are fairly standard tests for homogeneous-fill high explosives (HE?s), but, when using pressed pellet arrays as fill, the results of such cook-off tests are unknown. This research consisted of developing and designing an ?indoor? cook-off test capable of testing pressed Nitrotriazolone (NTO) pellets to assess thermal stability characteristics and critical temperature. The test method designed consists of the main testing vessel?the Petersen Group strand burner IV composed of 17-4 PH stainless steel with extreme pressure and temperature capabilities?a sample bolt holder used to hold the NTO pellet, a 400-W cartridge heater, two type K thermocouples, and an aluminized heat barrier. The cartridge heater was operated using a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) temperature controller. The data from the thermocouples used to monitor pellet and surrounding air temperatures were recorded using a USB-interfaced data logger capable of taking measurements at a rate of 1 sample per second. A series of thermal cook-off tests was conducted revealing critical temperatures for the NTO pellets ranging between 175 and 203?C. For slow cook-off tests, the average critical temperature, TC, was determined to be 196?7?C. Fast cook-off tests revealed an average TC of 189?1?C. Due to these temperatures occurring over such a wide range and evidence of partially burned explosive residue material after each test, it is suggested that the pellets are undergoing premature decomposition, and thus a critical temperature for these NTO pellets cannot be determined to a high accuracy. As such, the thermal stability of NTO pellets in CHEC arrays remains to be verified. This thesis details the design and development of the ?indoor? cook-off test as well as the thermal characteristics of the NTO pellets when exposed to extreme heating. Advisors/Committee Members: Petersen, Eric L (advisor), Mashuga, Chad V (committee member), Kulatilaka, Waruna D (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Nitrotriazolone; NTO; Compounded High Explosive Composite Technology; CHEC; high explosive; HE; energetic material; EM; critical temperature; Tc; cook-off

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APA (6th Edition):

Fasano, M. R. (2017). Thermal Cook-off Study of Pressed Nitrotriazolone (NTO) Pellets. (Thesis). Texas A&M University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/161450

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Fasano, Michaela Rose. “Thermal Cook-off Study of Pressed Nitrotriazolone (NTO) Pellets.” 2017. Thesis, Texas A&M University. Accessed November 21, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/161450.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Fasano, Michaela Rose. “Thermal Cook-off Study of Pressed Nitrotriazolone (NTO) Pellets.” 2017. Web. 21 Nov 2019.

Vancouver:

Fasano MR. Thermal Cook-off Study of Pressed Nitrotriazolone (NTO) Pellets. [Internet] [Thesis]. Texas A&M University; 2017. [cited 2019 Nov 21]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/161450.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Fasano MR. Thermal Cook-off Study of Pressed Nitrotriazolone (NTO) Pellets. [Thesis]. Texas A&M University; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/161450

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


Wright State University

3. Burdsall, Adam C. Abiotic Reduction Transformations of Recalcitrant Chlorinated Methanes, Chlorinated Ethanes, and 2,4-Dinitroanisole By Reduced Iron Oxides at Bench-Scale.

Degree: PhD, Environmental Sciences PhD, 2018, Wright State University

Sites contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons are frequent and widespread, and with the rising use of insensitive high explosive (IHE) compounds, more widespread contamination is inevitable. In the cases of both classes of organic contaminants, natural attenuation is a critical component of our understanding of the environmental fate of these compounds. This dissertation is intended to expand the knowledge of potential abiotic natural attenuation mechanisms and, in the case of the study of chlorinated hydrocarbons, to examine degradation under variable pH conditions in the hopes of helping to develop minimally invasive remediation techniques. The results indicated that precipitated hydrolyzed Fe(II) species are more reactive toward chlorinated hydrocarbons than precipitated magnetite particles alone. The combination of precipitated magnetite with Fe(II) species at high pH were found to have a slightly slower reaction than Fe(II) species but produced more reduced byproducts than either Fe(II) species or magnetite particles alone.Until this study, reduction of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) had not been studied with naturally occurring iron oxide minerals. Fe(II) added to hydrous ferric oxide and goethite at neutral to basic pH facilitated nitroreduction of insensitive explosive component, 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) to various nitroaniline byproducts. Magnetite was found to be a stronger reductant for DNAN, degrading it with and without Fe(II) amendments at pH 6 to 10. The study with magnetite and DNAN demonstrated that structural Fe(II) was more reactive than adsorbed Fe(II). Advisors/Committee Members: Agrawal, Abinash (Committee Chair).

Subjects/Keywords: Environmental Science; Geochemistry; Chlorinated pollutants; Chlorinated methanes; Insensitive munitions; Organic pollutants; Dinitroanisole; nitrotriazolone; Nitroguanidine; explosives; Iron Oxides; magnetite

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Burdsall, A. C. (2018). Abiotic Reduction Transformations of Recalcitrant Chlorinated Methanes, Chlorinated Ethanes, and 2,4-Dinitroanisole By Reduced Iron Oxides at Bench-Scale. (Doctoral Dissertation). Wright State University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=wright1527263758253055

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Burdsall, Adam C. “Abiotic Reduction Transformations of Recalcitrant Chlorinated Methanes, Chlorinated Ethanes, and 2,4-Dinitroanisole By Reduced Iron Oxides at Bench-Scale.” 2018. Doctoral Dissertation, Wright State University. Accessed November 21, 2019. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=wright1527263758253055.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Burdsall, Adam C. “Abiotic Reduction Transformations of Recalcitrant Chlorinated Methanes, Chlorinated Ethanes, and 2,4-Dinitroanisole By Reduced Iron Oxides at Bench-Scale.” 2018. Web. 21 Nov 2019.

Vancouver:

Burdsall AC. Abiotic Reduction Transformations of Recalcitrant Chlorinated Methanes, Chlorinated Ethanes, and 2,4-Dinitroanisole By Reduced Iron Oxides at Bench-Scale. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Wright State University; 2018. [cited 2019 Nov 21]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=wright1527263758253055.

Council of Science Editors:

Burdsall AC. Abiotic Reduction Transformations of Recalcitrant Chlorinated Methanes, Chlorinated Ethanes, and 2,4-Dinitroanisole By Reduced Iron Oxides at Bench-Scale. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Wright State University; 2018. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=wright1527263758253055

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