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1. Rybarczyk-Mydlowska, K. Phylogenetic relationships within major nematode clades based on multiple molecular markers.

Degree: 2013, NARCIS

Nematodes are probably the most abundant Metazoans on our planet. They are present in densities of millions of individuals per square meter in soil and sediments. However, these inconspicuous animals are hardly known to the general public as most individuals are colorless and smaller than 1 mm. If people are aware of nematodes, it is because of the damage they inflict on humans and animals such as elephantiasis (Wucheria bancrofti) and ascariasis (in humans Ascaris lubricoides; in pigs Ascaris suum), or on plants such as potato (potato cyst nematode) and tomato (root-knot nematodes). To a far lesser extent it is known that majority of nematodes are key players in the soil food web, and as such they can be used as indicators for the biological condition of the environment they live in. This PhD thesis focuses on terrestrial nematodes belonging to four orders: Dorylaimida, Mononchida, Aphelenchida and Tylenchida, which represent animals of ecological and economical relevance. Members of families belonging to the first two are highly sensitive to the environmental disturbances, and are informative as biological indicators. The order Aphelenchida harbors numerous facultative plant-parasitic species. In the absence of a host plant, most of them are able to feed on fungi as an alternative food source. This is in contrast to the distal representatives of the order Tylenchida that are invariably obligate parasites of higher plants. Stress-sensitive nematode orders Dorylaimida and Mononchida have a high potential for soil health assessment. The SSU rDNA-based analysis of these two orders resulted in two highly distinct phylogenies. Relationships among the Mononchida, an order dominated by carnivorous nematodes, were to some extent in accordance with the classical nematode systematics. It is noted that the families Mylonchulidae, Mononchidae and Anatonchidae are not monophyletic. Nevertheless, it was possible to design family-specific primers for rDNA-based molecular detection. On the contrary, resolution of the SSU rDNA tree of the Dorylaimida was extremely poor, except for the plant-parasitic family Longidoridae and the mainly predaceous family Nygolaimidae. Analysis of a 1,000 bp fragment of the 5’ region of large subunit (LSU) rDNA resulted in an improved resolution. Twelve subclades were distinguished and this topology was only in slight agreement with the classical systematics of the suborder Dorylaimina. The poor resolution generated by SSU rDNA sequence analysis within this species-rich suborder is remarkable; it has not been observed in any other suborder in the phylum Nematoda. Possibly, Dorylaimina diversification is the result of rapid speciation events. A plant-parasitic lifestyle apparently accelerates the rate of change of rDNA genes. This was not only true for the obligate plant-parasitic Longidoridae, but also for the facultative plant-parasitic Aphelenchoididae. Most members of the genus Aphelenchoides are fungivores, but a few of them… Advisors/Committee Members: Wageningen University, Jaap Bakker, Hans Helder, Geert Smant.

Subjects/Keywords: vrijlevende nematoden; dorylaimidae; mononchidae; aphelenchidae; fylogenetica; moleculaire merkers; moleculaire genetica; Evolutie en fylogenie; Nematoda; free living nematodes; dorylaimidae; mononchidae; aphelenchidae; phylogenetics; molecular markers; molecular genetics; Free-living Nematodes; Evolution and Phylogeny; Nematoda

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APA (6th Edition):

Rybarczyk-Mydlowska, K. (2013). Phylogenetic relationships within major nematode clades based on multiple molecular markers. (Doctoral Dissertation). NARCIS. Retrieved from http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/442675 ; urn:nbn:nl:ui:32-442675 ; urn:nbn:nl:ui:32-442675 ; http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/442675

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Rybarczyk-Mydlowska, K. “Phylogenetic relationships within major nematode clades based on multiple molecular markers.” 2013. Doctoral Dissertation, NARCIS. Accessed January 17, 2020. http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/442675 ; urn:nbn:nl:ui:32-442675 ; urn:nbn:nl:ui:32-442675 ; http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/442675.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Rybarczyk-Mydlowska, K. “Phylogenetic relationships within major nematode clades based on multiple molecular markers.” 2013. Web. 17 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Rybarczyk-Mydlowska K. Phylogenetic relationships within major nematode clades based on multiple molecular markers. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. NARCIS; 2013. [cited 2020 Jan 17]. Available from: http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/442675 ; urn:nbn:nl:ui:32-442675 ; urn:nbn:nl:ui:32-442675 ; http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/442675.

Council of Science Editors:

Rybarczyk-Mydlowska K. Phylogenetic relationships within major nematode clades based on multiple molecular markers. [Doctoral Dissertation]. NARCIS; 2013. Available from: http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/442675 ; urn:nbn:nl:ui:32-442675 ; urn:nbn:nl:ui:32-442675 ; http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/442675

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