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University of New Mexico

1. Medina, Una E. MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL.

Degree: Department of Communication and Journalism, 2010, University of New Mexico

One out of three Americans undergoes drunk-driving crashes; 23% result in death. To deter DWIs (Driving While under Influence), MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Drivers) created VIPs (Victim Impact Panels) where victims impact offenders with gory stories, photos, and threats of punishments and loss of freedom, hoping this message will deter DWIs. It is remarkable that although the VIP message is considered a primary DWI intervention, yet no studies have investigated VIP message effects. VIP message effects, their persistence and decay, are chronicled here over the course of 12 years. This study extends an empirical investigation of VIPs, conducted by Woodall, Delaney, Rogers, and Wheeler (2007) (n = 833) during 1994-1996. At 2 years, these researchers found MADD VIP participants' recidivism rates were 30% higher than their DWI School comparison group, trending toward significance at p = .0583. This study supports those results as significant at 12 years. As an extension, it investigates whether reactance theory explains VIP message effects failure. Reactance theory research, a subset of message effects research, explains how emotional, confrontational, and threatening messages induce psychological reactance in the mind of the message receiver, who then seeks to preserve his or her sense of freedom by behaving contrarily (Brehm, 1966). Hierarchically intensifying effects of these theoretical reactance antecedents are studied here in an unusual manner, as they occur in vivo, in real life. The same intervention was observed to have different effects depending on prior conditions and demographics. The emotional high-threat, high-confrontation MADD VIP message coincided with significantly shorter time to recidivism (p = .009, d = 1.64) and significantly higher number of subsequent arrests (p < .0001, d = 1.64) among recent prior offenders, and those with no priors under age 30 (p = .01, d = 0.35). Younger offenders may be associated with more iconoclastic behavior than older offenders (Beirness & Simpson, 1997; Greenberg, 2005; NHTSA, 2008), partially explaining the under-30 age effect. This study furthers persuasive message design as a science and suggests a message-based approach to intervention analysis. There was no effect when MADD VIP was analyzed simply as an intervention. However, there were highly significant effect sizes when the same MADD VIP intervention was analyzed as a message. This study concludes by offering MADD VIP best practice recommendations. Advisors/Committee Members: Woodall, W. Gill, Schuetz, Janice, Rivera, Mario A., McDermott, Virginia, Delaney, Harold.

Subjects/Keywords: Victim Impact panels; MADD; message effects; randomized trial; effect size; drunk driving; DWI; efficacy trial; method problems; methodological problems; communication theory; theory building; rhetorical analysis; triangulation; drunk driving; interventions; covariates; ANOVA; ANCOVA; survival analysis; message context; message content; message function; message intensity; message frequency; message metrics; message pathos; pathos; message decay; decay rate; message decay rate; intent to persuade; persuasion; confrontation; shame; shaming; public shaming; public censure; forewarning; perceived threat; reactance theory; assumptions; sampling error; recruitment error; non-adherence to condition; random assignment error; factorial design; operationalization; theory construct operationalization; methods informed by literature; methodological symbiosis; questionnaire reliability and validity; secondary data sources; public arrest record; public data; covariate operationalization; reactance constructs; content analysis; theme analysis; prior arrest; censored cases; QSR N6; SPSS; Excel; limitations; under-identification; attrition; population attrition; bimodal distribution; dichotomous variables; data splitting; discretizing data; time to recidivism; subsequent arrests; emotional change; emotion score; outliers; reactance antecedent; message dose; message dosage; treatment fidelity; assess treatment fidelity; predictor variables; controlling variables; demographic covariate; demographic predictor; confirmation bias; data bias; interaction effect; treatment effect; message design; fear appeal; message strength; anger; survival analysis; time dependence; mixed methods; study design; message standardization; internal validity; hard data; hard end-point data; marginal sample size; observed variables; intervening factors; intervening variables; sample size; in vivo; hierarchy of effects; emotional threat; older offenders; young offenders; intervention analysis; message-based approach; best practices; DWI intervention; DWI treatment; prior conditions; iconoclast; Drunks Against MADD Mothers; resistance; message design science

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Medina, U. E. (2010). MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of New Mexico. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1928/12395

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Medina, Una E. “MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL.” 2010. Doctoral Dissertation, University of New Mexico. Accessed January 19, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/1928/12395.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Medina, Una E. “MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL.” 2010. Web. 19 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Medina UE. MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of New Mexico; 2010. [cited 2020 Jan 19]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/12395.

Council of Science Editors:

Medina UE. MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of New Mexico; 2010. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/12395


Mississippi State University

2. Dimitrov, Rossen Petkov. OVERLAPPING OF COMMUNICATION AND COMPUTATION AND EARLY BINDING: FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS FOR IMPROVING PARALLEL PERFORMANCE ON CLUSTERS OF WORKSTATIONS.

Degree: PhD, Computer Science, 2001, Mississippi State University

This study considers software techniques for improving performance on clusters of workstations and approaches for designing message-passing middleware that facilitate scalable, parallel processing. Early binding and overlapping of communication and computation are identified as fundamental approaches for improving parallel performance and scalability on clusters. Currently, cluster computers using the Message-Passing Interface for interprocess communication are the predominant choice for building high-performance computing facilities, which makes the findings of this work relevant to a wide audience from the areas of high-performance computing and parallel processing. The performance-enhancing techniques studied in this work are presently underutilized in practice because of the lack of adequate support by existing message-passing libraries and are also rarely considered by parallel algorithm designers. Furthermore, commonly accepted methods for performance analysis and evaluation of parallel systems omit these techniques and focus primarily on more obvious communication characteristics such as latency and bandwidth. This study provides a theoretical framework for describing early binding and overlapping of communication and computation in models for parallel programming. This framework defines four new performance metrics that facilitate new approaches for performance analysis of parallel systems and algorithms. This dissertation provides experimental data that validate the correctness and accuracy of the performance analysis based on the new framework. The theoretical results of this performance analysis can be used by designers of parallel system and application software for assessing the quality of their implementations and for predicting the effective performance benefits of early binding and overlapping. This work presents MPI/Pro, a new MPI implementation that is specifically optimized for clusters of workstations interconnected with high-speed networks. This MPI implementation emphasizes features such as persistent communication, asynchronous processing, low processor overhead, and independent message progress. These features are identified as critical for delivering maximum performance to applications. The experimental section of this dissertation demonstrates the capability of MPI/Pro to facilitate software techniques that result in significant application performance improvements. Specific demonstrations with Virtual Interface Architecture and TCP/IP over Ethernet are offered. Advisors/Committee Members: Anthony Skjellum (chair), Rainey Little (committee member), Donna Reese (committee member), Ioana Banicescu (committee member), Arkady Kanevsky (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: performance metrics; cluster computing; message-passing middleware; parallel processing; parallel performance; MPI; overlapping of communication and computation; early binding

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Dimitrov, R. P. (2001). OVERLAPPING OF COMMUNICATION AND COMPUTATION AND EARLY BINDING: FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS FOR IMPROVING PARALLEL PERFORMANCE ON CLUSTERS OF WORKSTATIONS. (Doctoral Dissertation). Mississippi State University. Retrieved from http://sun.library.msstate.edu/ETD-db/theses/available/etd-04092001-231941/ ;

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Dimitrov, Rossen Petkov. “OVERLAPPING OF COMMUNICATION AND COMPUTATION AND EARLY BINDING: FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS FOR IMPROVING PARALLEL PERFORMANCE ON CLUSTERS OF WORKSTATIONS.” 2001. Doctoral Dissertation, Mississippi State University. Accessed January 19, 2020. http://sun.library.msstate.edu/ETD-db/theses/available/etd-04092001-231941/ ;.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Dimitrov, Rossen Petkov. “OVERLAPPING OF COMMUNICATION AND COMPUTATION AND EARLY BINDING: FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS FOR IMPROVING PARALLEL PERFORMANCE ON CLUSTERS OF WORKSTATIONS.” 2001. Web. 19 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Dimitrov RP. OVERLAPPING OF COMMUNICATION AND COMPUTATION AND EARLY BINDING: FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS FOR IMPROVING PARALLEL PERFORMANCE ON CLUSTERS OF WORKSTATIONS. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University; 2001. [cited 2020 Jan 19]. Available from: http://sun.library.msstate.edu/ETD-db/theses/available/etd-04092001-231941/ ;.

Council of Science Editors:

Dimitrov RP. OVERLAPPING OF COMMUNICATION AND COMPUTATION AND EARLY BINDING: FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS FOR IMPROVING PARALLEL PERFORMANCE ON CLUSTERS OF WORKSTATIONS. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Mississippi State University; 2001. Available from: http://sun.library.msstate.edu/ETD-db/theses/available/etd-04092001-231941/ ;

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