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You searched for subject:(improvised explosives). Showing records 1 – 2 of 2 total matches.

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1. Corbin, Inge. Analysis of Improvised Explosives by Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry and Microfluidic Techniques.

Degree: PhD, Chemistry, 2016, Florida International University

Improvised explosives may be based on smokeless gunpowder, fertilizers, or inorganic oxidizers such as nitrate (NO3-), chlorate (ClO3-), and perchlorate (ClO4-) salts. Identification is a priority for the military and law enforcement but due to their varying physical properties and complexity, identification can be challenging. Consequently, three methods have been developed to aid in presumptive and confirmatory detection. Smokeless powder contains plasticizers, stabilizers, dyes, opacifiers, flash suppressants, and other compounds. Identification of these additives can narrow down or identify the brands of smokeless powder used in a device. Fourteen organic smokeless powder components were identified by capillary electrochromatography (CEC) using a hexyl acrylate monolithic stationary phase coupled to UV detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The CEC-UV method efficiently detects all 14 organic components, while TOF-MS provides sensitivity and selectivity. A mixed smokeless powder component standard was analyzed and the composition of the additive package in commercial smokeless powders determined. Detection limits ranged from 1.0 – 3.2 μg/ml and analysis time was 18 minutes. Second, a procedure for the detection of urea nitrate (UN) and ammonium nitrate (AN) by infusion electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Solubility tests were performed to find a solvent for both UN and AN that did not cause UN to dissociate. Two adduct ions were detected for each explosive: for AN, m/z 178 [2AN+NH4]+ and m/z 258 [3AN+NH4]+ ions, and for UN m/z 185 [UN+NO3]− and m/z 248 [UN+HNO3+NO3]−. Specificity of the analysis was examined by mixing the explosives with various salts and interferents. Gas-phase adduct ions were useful in distinguishing between ion pairs and mixed salts. Finally, a paper microfluidic device (PMD) was developed as a presumptive test using colorimetric reagents for the detection of ions associated with improvised explosives. The device was configured to test for nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), chlorate (ClO3-), perchlorate (ClO4-), and urea nitrate (UN). Proof of concept was performed using extracts of soil containing inorganic oxidizers. The development of these analytical methods allows the detection of smokeless powder components, fertilizers, and oxidizers and expands the suite of analytical methods available for the analysis of improvised explosives. Advisors/Committee Members: Bruce McCord, Yong Cai, Stewart D'Alessio, Piero Gardinali, Joong-Ho Moon.

Subjects/Keywords: Mass spectrometry; electrospray; improvised explosives; urea nitrate; ammonium nitrate; electrochromatography; smokeless powder; organic gunshot residue; paper microfluidics; Analytical Chemistry; Chemistry

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APA (6th Edition):

Corbin, I. (2016). Analysis of Improvised Explosives by Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry and Microfluidic Techniques. (Doctoral Dissertation). Florida International University. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/2551 ; 10.25148/etd.FIDC000771 ; FIDC000771

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Corbin, Inge. “Analysis of Improvised Explosives by Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry and Microfluidic Techniques.” 2016. Doctoral Dissertation, Florida International University. Accessed August 11, 2020. https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/2551 ; 10.25148/etd.FIDC000771 ; FIDC000771.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Corbin, Inge. “Analysis of Improvised Explosives by Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry and Microfluidic Techniques.” 2016. Web. 11 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Corbin I. Analysis of Improvised Explosives by Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry and Microfluidic Techniques. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida International University; 2016. [cited 2020 Aug 11]. Available from: https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/2551 ; 10.25148/etd.FIDC000771 ; FIDC000771.

Council of Science Editors:

Corbin I. Analysis of Improvised Explosives by Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry and Microfluidic Techniques. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Florida International University; 2016. Available from: https://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/2551 ; 10.25148/etd.FIDC000771 ; FIDC000771


IUPUI

2. Bors, Dana E. Development of Total Vaporization Solid Phase Microextraction and Its Application to Explosives and Automotive Racing.

Degree: 2015, IUPUI

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)

Pipe bombs are a common form of improvised explosive device, due in part to their ease of construction. Despite their simplistic nature, the lethality of pipe bombs should not be dismissed. Due to the risk of harm and their commonality, research into the pipe bomb deflagration process and subsequent chemical analysis is necessary. The laboratory examination of pipe bomb fragments begins with a visual examination. While this is presumptive in nature, hypotheses formed here can lead to subsequent confirmatory exams. The purpose of this study was to measure the mass and velocity of pipe bomb fragments using high speed video. These values were used to discern any trends in container type (PVC or black/galvanized steel), energetic filler (Pyrodex or double base smokeless powder), and ambient temperature (13°C and -8°C). The results show patterns based on container type, energetic filler, and temperature. The second stage of a laboratory exam is chemical analysis to identify any explosive that may be present. Legality calls for identification only, not quantitation. The purpose of this study is to quantitate the amount of explosive residue on post-blast pipe bomb fragments. By doing so, the instrumental sensitivities required for this type of analysis will be known. Additionally, a distribution of the residue will be mapped to provide insight into the deflagration process of a device. This project used a novel sampling technique called total vaporization solid phase microextraction. The method was optimized for nitroglycerin, the main energetic in double base smokeless powder. Detection limits are in the part per billion range. Results show that the concentration of residue is not uniform, and the highest concentration is located on the endcaps regardless of container type. Total vaporization solid phase microextraction was also applied to automotive racing samples of interest to the National Hot Rod Association. The purpose of this project is two-fold; safety of the race teams in the form of dragstrip adhesive consistency and monitoring in the form of fuel testing for illegal adulteration. A suite of analyses, including gas chromatography mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and evaporation rate, were developed for the testing of dragstrip adhesives. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry methods were developed for both nitromethane based fuel as well as racing gasolines. Analyses of fuel from post-race cars were able to detect evidence of adulteration. Not only was a novel technique developed and optimized, but it was successfully implemented in the analysis of two different analytes, explosive residue and racing gasoline. TV-SPME shows tremendous promise for the future in its ability to analyze a broad spectrum of analytes.

Advisors/Committee Members: Goodpaster, John V., Picard, Christine Johanna, Shepson, Paul, Cooks, Graham, Long, Eric C..

Subjects/Keywords: TV-SPME; solid phase microextraction; smokeless powder; nitroglycerin; explosives; Improvised explosive devices  – Analysis; Explosives  – Detection  – Residues; Pipe  – Thermodynamics  – Analysis; Bombs  – Combustion  – Research; Chemistry, Analytic  – Technique  – Methodology; Extraction (Chemistry)  – Methodology  – Analysis; Gunpowder, Smokeless  – Research  – Analysis; Fragmentation reactions; Automobile racing  – Research  – Analysis; Nitroglycerin  – Sampling; Chemical reactions  – Research  – Methodology  – Analysis

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Bors, D. E. (2015). Development of Total Vaporization Solid Phase Microextraction and Its Application to Explosives and Automotive Racing. (Thesis). IUPUI. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1805/9826

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Bors, Dana E. “Development of Total Vaporization Solid Phase Microextraction and Its Application to Explosives and Automotive Racing.” 2015. Thesis, IUPUI. Accessed August 11, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/1805/9826.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Bors, Dana E. “Development of Total Vaporization Solid Phase Microextraction and Its Application to Explosives and Automotive Racing.” 2015. Web. 11 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Bors DE. Development of Total Vaporization Solid Phase Microextraction and Its Application to Explosives and Automotive Racing. [Internet] [Thesis]. IUPUI; 2015. [cited 2020 Aug 11]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/9826.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Bors DE. Development of Total Vaporization Solid Phase Microextraction and Its Application to Explosives and Automotive Racing. [Thesis]. IUPUI; 2015. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/9826

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.