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The Ohio State University

1. Zachariadou, Christina. Gingival Health Transcriptome.

Degree: MS, Dentistry, 2018, The Ohio State University

Introduction: In the field of periodontology, a satisfactory definition of periodontal health is lacking. Instead, clinicians use surrogate measures, such as color, texture, consistency, probing depths and bleeding on probing to examine periodontal tissues and diagnose disease, or the absence of it, which they define as "clinical health". Additionally, it has been shown that age progression is accompanied by changes in the periodontium. As a result, understanding the gene expression in healthy gingiva, through the field of transcriptomics, could provide some insight on the molecules that contribute to gingival health. Also, comparing the transcriptome of young and older subjects, taking into consideration the effect of sex/gender, can shed light on differential gene expression with age progression and on individual differences between sexes, and may provide future therapeutic endpoints of periodontal treatment. The main focus of this study was to ascertain collagen (COL) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene expression in clinically healthy gingival tissues.Material and Methods: Gingival biopsies were obtained from nineteen non-smoking individuals with clinically healthy gingiva. The location of biopsy collection was the interpapillary attached gingiva between the second premolar and first molar of the two maxillary quadrants. Immediately after harvesting, the tissues were immersed and stored in RNAlater solution. Two age groups were included: "young" (18-35 years old) and "older" individuals (=60 years old). RNA was extracted and Next-Generation RNA Sequencing was performed, with the use of Unique Molecular Identifiers (UMIs). Collagen and MMP gene expression was described. Comparisons were performed between young and older individuals as a total, as well as between young versus older females, and young versus older males. Statistical significance was evaluated using the student's t-test with a P-value = 0.05 set as the statistically significant level.Results: RNA-sequencing analysis with Unique Molecular Identifiers (UMIs) showed that 1790 genes were differentially expressed between the young and old groups; 347 genes were upregulated and 1443 genes were downregulated with aging. Expression of forty-eight collagen genes was seen in the gingiva of participating individuals. The top four expressed collagen genes, with high number of transcripts, were COL1A2, COL17A1, COL3A1 and COL1A1. Fifteen collagen genes were downregulated with aging, and one (COL4A6) was upregulated. Decreases in collagen gene expression seemed to be sex-specific, primary affecting the female aging group, while only one collagen gene (COL16A1) was downregulated in aging males. Twenty-five MMP genes were expressed in our sample. The five genes with the highest expression were MMP2, MMP28, MMP24-AS1, MMP16 and MMP14. MMP2 and MMP15 expression was downregulated in aging females, while MMP16 was downregulated in aging males. Conclusion: Transcriptomic analysis showed that forty-eight COL genes and twenty-five MMP genes are expressed in clinically… Advisors/Committee Members: Mariotti , Angelo (Advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Aging; Dentistry; Gender; Health; healthy gingiva; gingival; health; transcriptome; collagen; matrix metalloproteinase; MMP; age; aging; sex; gender

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APA (6th Edition):

Zachariadou, C. (2018). Gingival Health Transcriptome. (Masters Thesis). The Ohio State University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1532533066167142

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Zachariadou, Christina. “Gingival Health Transcriptome.” 2018. Masters Thesis, The Ohio State University. Accessed April 16, 2021. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1532533066167142.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Zachariadou, Christina. “Gingival Health Transcriptome.” 2018. Web. 16 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Zachariadou C. Gingival Health Transcriptome. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. The Ohio State University; 2018. [cited 2021 Apr 16]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1532533066167142.

Council of Science Editors:

Zachariadou C. Gingival Health Transcriptome. [Masters Thesis]. The Ohio State University; 2018. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1532533066167142

2. Chien, Ming. Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Effects Produced in Gingiva by Metronidazole and Azithromycin.

Degree: MS, Dentistry, 2014, The Ohio State University

Objective: Previous studies suggest that azithromycin (AZM) inhibits subclinical gingi-val inflammation in individuals with minimal plaque and clinically healthy gingiva. While it is unclear whether other antibiotics produce similar effects in gingiva, metroni-dazole (MET) has been shown to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine production by cul-tured periodontal ligament cells. This randomized, blinded, crossover study compared anti-inflammatory effects produced by AZM and MET.Methods: Twelve healthy adult subjects with good oral hygiene and clinically healthy gingiva were randomly allocated to receive a blinded regimen of either AZM (500mg ini-tial dose, then 250mg at 24 and 48 hrs) or MET (375mg every 12 hr for 48 hr). At base-line (immediately before starting the regimens) and 2, 4, 7 and 14 days later, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected from twelve maxillary interproximal sites, measured with a calibrated Periotron, pooled, and stored frozen. After a 21 day washout period, each subject received the alternative regimen. A second set of GCF samples were collected at the same time points. GCF samples were assayed for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine signatures by multiplex immunoassay.Results: Both agents induced significant transient decreases in the rate of GCF flow on days 2, 4 and 7. No significant differences in their effects were observed. With both an-tibiotics, the GCF flow rate increased to approximately 86% of baseline between days 7 and 14. In parallel with their effects on GCF volume, AZM and MET induced transient reductions in the GCF content of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-12, IL-17, G-CSF) as well as IL-8, RANTES, VEGF, and IL-4. The effects of AZM and MET were similar in magnitude and the most significant decreases below baseline levels were apparent on days 4 and 7. MET induced a larger decrease in GCF IL-8 content than AZM. Neither agent produced significant changes in the amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-1 receptor antagonist in GCF. Conclusions: In addition to their known antimicrobial effects, AZM and MET both ap-pear to inhibit production of a similar range of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemoki-nes in gingiva. This could potentially enhance the efficacy of these agents in the treat-ment of inflammatory periodontitis. Advisors/Committee Members: Walters, John (Advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Dentistry; Periodontics; Antibiotics; Azithromycin; Metronidazole; GCF; Periodontitis; healthy gingiva

healthy gingiva (Alfano, 1974). The relationship between crevicular fluid production… …AZM and MET in subjects with clinically healthy gingiva and focus on changes in the rate of… …levels of bacterial plaque and clinically healthy gingiva. At the histological level… …clinically healthy gingiva contains a sparse infiltration of inflammatory cells in both the… …pro-inflammatory signatures in GCF in individuals with clinically healthy gingiva. To… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Chien, M. (2014). Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Effects Produced in Gingiva by Metronidazole and Azithromycin. (Masters Thesis). The Ohio State University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1402670626

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Chien, Ming. “Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Effects Produced in Gingiva by Metronidazole and Azithromycin.” 2014. Masters Thesis, The Ohio State University. Accessed April 16, 2021. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1402670626.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Chien, Ming. “Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Effects Produced in Gingiva by Metronidazole and Azithromycin.” 2014. Web. 16 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Chien M. Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Effects Produced in Gingiva by Metronidazole and Azithromycin. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. The Ohio State University; 2014. [cited 2021 Apr 16]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1402670626.

Council of Science Editors:

Chien M. Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Effects Produced in Gingiva by Metronidazole and Azithromycin. [Masters Thesis]. The Ohio State University; 2014. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1402670626

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