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California State Polytechnic University – Pomona

1. Hu, Huiying. Microbial Quality and Safety Assessment on Fresh Orange Pomace and its Derivative from Drying and Refining as an Innovative Ingredient.

Degree: MS, Department of Nutrition & Food Science, 2019, California State Polytechnic University – Pomona

Orange pomace (OP), a by-product from the orange juicing process, is still abundant in dietary fiber and phenolic compounds. In order to reutilize this by-product and convert it into an innovative functional food ingredient, a lab-scale process consisting of a series of unit operations was developed, including wet grinding, dehydration, dry milling and sieving. The objective of this study was to assess the microbial quality and safety of fresh OP and the dried OP powder, by validating the OP powder processing line with proposed modifications. TPC and MYC, as main microbial quality indicators, were tested for all the samples treated by each processing step. In addition, coliforms, E. coli., Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were tested for the fresh OP and final OP powder. The results showed there was no E. coli. detected in the fresh OP sample, however, the microbial quality indicators (TPC and MYC) and safety indicators (Coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus) of the fresh OP were of concerns. Within the processing line, washing OP could not reduce microbial loads but make easier for ensuing steps by removing the majority of free sugars. The current sanitation condition of the food contact surfaces and cleaning of the meat grinder by tap water was sufficient or didn???t introduce cross-contamination to wet OP samples based on TPC and MYC results, but according to SSOPs, sanitizers should be applied. Dehydration at 74 ??? for 6 hours could reduce MYC and TPC with significant 1.4 and 1.7 log reduction, respectively; however, the proposed single-layer setting with controlled weight of wet OP mass per tray should be adopted, with results suggesting the lower mass load led to greater log reduction, up to 4 and 3.7 log for 150g/ tray on TPC and MYC, respectively. Single-step grinding and sieving using one equipment were better in terms of higher yield of finer powder and easier for cleaning the contact surfaces, which could reduce the chance for cross-contamination compared to the use of two separate units for grinding and sieving. Using all proposed changes in a modified processing line, the final OP powder met the satisfactory level criteria for TPC and MYC. Staphylococcus aureus and Coliforms in the final OPP were all below 100 MPN/g (n=3). There was no E. coil. and Salmonella present as well. Storage of the final OPP under the ambient conditions for 120 days did not show significant changes in all microbial quality and safety indicators, suggesting its shelf stability could be warranted. Advisors/Committee Members: Li, Yao Olive (advisor), Lin, Wei-Jen (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: fruit by-product

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APA (6th Edition):

Hu, H. (2019). Microbial Quality and Safety Assessment on Fresh Orange Pomace and its Derivative from Drying and Refining as an Innovative Ingredient. (Masters Thesis). California State Polytechnic University – Pomona. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10211.3/212829

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Hu, Huiying. “Microbial Quality and Safety Assessment on Fresh Orange Pomace and its Derivative from Drying and Refining as an Innovative Ingredient.” 2019. Masters Thesis, California State Polytechnic University – Pomona. Accessed October 15, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10211.3/212829.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Hu, Huiying. “Microbial Quality and Safety Assessment on Fresh Orange Pomace and its Derivative from Drying and Refining as an Innovative Ingredient.” 2019. Web. 15 Oct 2019.

Vancouver:

Hu H. Microbial Quality and Safety Assessment on Fresh Orange Pomace and its Derivative from Drying and Refining as an Innovative Ingredient. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. California State Polytechnic University – Pomona; 2019. [cited 2019 Oct 15]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10211.3/212829.

Council of Science Editors:

Hu H. Microbial Quality and Safety Assessment on Fresh Orange Pomace and its Derivative from Drying and Refining as an Innovative Ingredient. [Masters Thesis]. California State Polytechnic University – Pomona; 2019. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10211.3/212829

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