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Louisiana State University

1. Molina, Oscar Mauricio. Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Near-Wellbore Modeling of a Gas Well.

Degree: MS, Petroleum Engineering, 2015, Louisiana State University

Well completion plays a key role in the economically viable production of hydrocarbons from a reservoir. Therefore, it is of high importance for the production engineer to have as many tools available that aid in the successful design of a proper completion scheme, depending on the type of formation rock, reservoir fluid properties and forecasting of production rates. Because well completion jobs are expensive, most of the completed wells are usually expected to produce as much hydrocarbon and as fast as possible, in order to shorten the time of return of the investment. This research study focused on the evaluation of well performance at two common completion schemes: gravel pack and frac pack. Also, the effects of sand production on well productivity and its associated erosive effects on the wellbore, downhole and tubular equipment were also a motivation in considering the inclusion of a decoupled geomechanics models into the study. The geomechanics-hydrodynamics modeling was done using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach to simulate a near-wellbore model, on which diverse physical processes interact simultaneously, such as nonlinear porous media flow (Forchheimer formulation), turbulence kinetic energy dissipation, heterogeneous reservoir rock properties and particles transportation. In addition, this study considered a gas reservoir whose thermodynamic properties were modeled using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. In general, this study is divided into: 1. Verification of a CFD simulation results against its corresponding analytical solution. 2. Analysis of well completion performance of each of the proposed completion schemes. 3. Effect of using Darcy’s law on the prediction of well completion performance. 4. Sand production and erosive damage analysis. The CFD approach used on this research delivered promising results, including pressure and velocity distribution in the near-wellbore model as well as three-dimensional flow patterns and effects of sanding on the wellbore integrity.

Subjects/Keywords: completion performance; erosion; sand production; CFD; gravel pack; frac pack; well completions; Forchheimer; gas well; high rate flow

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Molina, O. M. (2015). Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Near-Wellbore Modeling of a Gas Well. (Masters Thesis). Louisiana State University. Retrieved from etd-07022015-150859 ; https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_theses/404

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Molina, Oscar Mauricio. “Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Near-Wellbore Modeling of a Gas Well.” 2015. Masters Thesis, Louisiana State University. Accessed August 09, 2020. etd-07022015-150859 ; https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_theses/404.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Molina, Oscar Mauricio. “Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Near-Wellbore Modeling of a Gas Well.” 2015. Web. 09 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Molina OM. Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Near-Wellbore Modeling of a Gas Well. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Louisiana State University; 2015. [cited 2020 Aug 09]. Available from: etd-07022015-150859 ; https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_theses/404.

Council of Science Editors:

Molina OM. Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Near-Wellbore Modeling of a Gas Well. [Masters Thesis]. Louisiana State University; 2015. Available from: etd-07022015-150859 ; https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_theses/404

2. Hurt, Robert S. Toughness-dominated hydraulic fractures in cohesionless particulate materials.

Degree: PhD, Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2012, Georgia Tech

This work shows that toughness (resistance) to fracture propagation is an inherent characteristic of cohesionless particulate materials, which is significant for understanding hydraulic fracturing in geotechnical, geological, and petroleum applications. We have developed experimental techniques to quantify the initiation and propagation of fluid-driven fractures in saturated particulate materials. The fracturing liquid is injected into particulate materials, where the fluid flow is localized in thin crack-like conduits. By analogy, we call them 'cracks' or 'hydraulic fractures'. Based on the laboratory observations and scale analysis, this work offers physical concepts to explain the observed phenomena. When a fracture propagates in a solid, new surfaces are created by breaking material bonds. Consequently, the material is in tension at the fracture tip. In contrast, all parts of the cohesionless particulate material (including the tip zone of hydraulic fracture) are likely to be in compression. In solid materials, the fluid front lags behind the front of the propagating fracture, while the lag zone is absent for fluid-driven fractures in cohesionless materials. The compressive stress state and the absence of the fluid lag are important characteristics of hydraulic fracturing in particulate materials with low, or no, cohesion. Our experimental results show that the primary factor affecting peak (initiation) pressure is the magnitude of the remote stresses. The morphology of fracture and fluid leak-off zone, however, changes significantly not only with stresses, but also with other parameters such as flow rate, fluid rheology, and permeability. Typical features of the observed fractures are multiple off-shots and the bluntness of the fracture tip. This suggests the importance of inelastic deformation in the process of fracture propagation in cohesionless materials. Similar to solid materials, fractures propagated perpendicular to the least compressive stress. However, peak injection pressures are significantly greater than the maximum principle stresses in the experiments. Further, by incorporating the dominate experimental parameters into dimensionless form; a reasonable power-law fit is achieved between a dimensionless peak injection pressure and dimensionless stress. Scaling indicates that there is a high pressure gradient in the leak-off zone in the direction normal to the fracture. Fluid pressure does not decrease considerably along the fracture, however, due to the relatively wide fracture aperture. This suggests that hydraulic fractures in unconsolidated materials propagate within the toughness-dominated regime. Furthermore, the theoretical model of toughness-dominated hydraulic fracturing can be matched to the experimental pressure-time dependences with only one fitting parameter. Scale analysis shows that large apertures at the fracture tip correspond to relatively large 'effective' fracture (surface) energy, which can be orders of magnitude greater than typical for hard rocks. Advisors/Committee Members: Germanovich, Leonid (Committee Chair), Adachi, Jose (Committee Member), Huang, Haiying (Committee Member), Lowell, Robert (Committee Member), Rix, Glen (Committee Member), Van Dyke, Peter (Committee Member).

Subjects/Keywords: Environmental remediation; Reservoir stimulation; Frac-pack; Frac-pac; Sand production; Fracture mechanics; Materials Fatigue

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Hurt, R. S. (2012). Toughness-dominated hydraulic fractures in cohesionless particulate materials. (Doctoral Dissertation). Georgia Tech. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1853/43708

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Hurt, Robert S. “Toughness-dominated hydraulic fractures in cohesionless particulate materials.” 2012. Doctoral Dissertation, Georgia Tech. Accessed August 09, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/1853/43708.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Hurt, Robert S. “Toughness-dominated hydraulic fractures in cohesionless particulate materials.” 2012. Web. 09 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Hurt RS. Toughness-dominated hydraulic fractures in cohesionless particulate materials. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Georgia Tech; 2012. [cited 2020 Aug 09]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1853/43708.

Council of Science Editors:

Hurt RS. Toughness-dominated hydraulic fractures in cohesionless particulate materials. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Georgia Tech; 2012. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1853/43708

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