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Universiteit Utrecht

1. Kamalski, J.M.H. Coherence marking, comprehension and persuasion. On the processing and representation of discourse.

Degree: 2007, Universiteit Utrecht

This dissertation focuses on the role of coherence marking in discourse. If we take as an example a 1914 advertisement for Ford, that states: Buy it because it’s a better car. The relation that exists between the first segment [buy it] and the second segment [it’s a better car] is a claim-argument relation, in this case explicitly signalled by the coherence marker because. How does such a coherence marker influence the mental representation that a reader constructs from a text? The six experiments in this dissertation show that coherence marking affects the reader in different ways: coherence marking can influence text comprehension, appraisal and persuasion. Coherence marking improves text comprehension for readers who do not have much prior knowledge about the text topic. For readers who have more prior knowledge about a topic, a more implicit text leads to optimal comprehension. Also, coherence marking positively influences readers’ opinions about the text and text quality. Finally, it becomes apparent that to study effects of coherence marking on persuasion, it is necessary to make a distinction between the marking of objective relations (relations that exist in external reality, such as cause-effect) and subjective relations (relations that are constructed by the speaker or writer, such as the claim-argument relation in the Ford advertisement). Empirical results show that objective marking can have a positive effect on persuasion, whereas subjective marking can cause a so-called forewarning effect: when readers recognize the attempt to influence them, they build resistance to it. The research in this dissertation shows the importance of a subtle text characteristic such as coherence marking. It combines insights from text linguistics, discourse processing, and social psychology, and should therefore be of interest to researchers in any of these domains.

Subjects/Keywords: Letteren; coherence marking; discourse processing; text comprehension; persuasion; forewarning; subjectivity

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Kamalski, J. M. H. (2007). Coherence marking, comprehension and persuasion. On the processing and representation of discourse. (Doctoral Dissertation). Universiteit Utrecht. Retrieved from http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/22617

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Kamalski, J M H. “Coherence marking, comprehension and persuasion. On the processing and representation of discourse.” 2007. Doctoral Dissertation, Universiteit Utrecht. Accessed April 14, 2021. http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/22617.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Kamalski, J M H. “Coherence marking, comprehension and persuasion. On the processing and representation of discourse.” 2007. Web. 14 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Kamalski JMH. Coherence marking, comprehension and persuasion. On the processing and representation of discourse. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Universiteit Utrecht; 2007. [cited 2021 Apr 14]. Available from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/22617.

Council of Science Editors:

Kamalski JMH. Coherence marking, comprehension and persuasion. On the processing and representation of discourse. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Universiteit Utrecht; 2007. Available from: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/22617

2. Kamalski, J.M.H. Coherence marking, comprehension and persuasion. On the processing and representation of discourse.

Degree: 2007, University Utrecht

This dissertation focuses on the role of coherence marking in discourse. If we take as an example a 1914 advertisement for Ford, that states: Buy it because it’s a better car. The relation that exists between the first segment [buy it] and the second segment [it’s a better car] is a claim-argument relation, in this case explicitly signalled by the coherence marker because. How does such a coherence marker influence the mental representation that a reader constructs from a text? The six experiments in this dissertation show that coherence marking affects the reader in different ways: coherence marking can influence text comprehension, appraisal and persuasion. Coherence marking improves text comprehension for readers who do not have much prior knowledge about the text topic. For readers who have more prior knowledge about a topic, a more implicit text leads to optimal comprehension. Also, coherence marking positively influences readers’ opinions about the text and text quality. Finally, it becomes apparent that to study effects of coherence marking on persuasion, it is necessary to make a distinction between the marking of objective relations (relations that exist in external reality, such as cause-effect) and subjective relations (relations that are constructed by the speaker or writer, such as the claim-argument relation in the Ford advertisement). Empirical results show that objective marking can have a positive effect on persuasion, whereas subjective marking can cause a so-called forewarning effect: when readers recognize the attempt to influence them, they build resistance to it. The research in this dissertation shows the importance of a subtle text characteristic such as coherence marking. It combines insights from text linguistics, discourse processing, and social psychology, and should therefore be of interest to researchers in any of these domains.

Subjects/Keywords: coherence marking; discourse processing; text comprehension; persuasion; forewarning; subjectivity

Record DetailsSimilar RecordsGoogle PlusoneFacebookTwitterCiteULikeMendeleyreddit

APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Kamalski, J. M. H. (2007). Coherence marking, comprehension and persuasion. On the processing and representation of discourse. (Doctoral Dissertation). University Utrecht. Retrieved from https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/22617 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-22617 ; 1874/22617 ; urn:isbn:9789078328292 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-22617 ; https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/22617

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Kamalski, J M H. “Coherence marking, comprehension and persuasion. On the processing and representation of discourse.” 2007. Doctoral Dissertation, University Utrecht. Accessed April 14, 2021. https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/22617 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-22617 ; 1874/22617 ; urn:isbn:9789078328292 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-22617 ; https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/22617.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Kamalski, J M H. “Coherence marking, comprehension and persuasion. On the processing and representation of discourse.” 2007. Web. 14 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Kamalski JMH. Coherence marking, comprehension and persuasion. On the processing and representation of discourse. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University Utrecht; 2007. [cited 2021 Apr 14]. Available from: https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/22617 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-22617 ; 1874/22617 ; urn:isbn:9789078328292 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-22617 ; https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/22617.

Council of Science Editors:

Kamalski JMH. Coherence marking, comprehension and persuasion. On the processing and representation of discourse. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University Utrecht; 2007. Available from: https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/22617 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-22617 ; 1874/22617 ; urn:isbn:9789078328292 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-22617 ; https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/22617


University of New Mexico

3. Medina, Una E. MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL.

Degree: Department of Communication and Journalism, 2010, University of New Mexico

One out of three Americans undergoes drunk-driving crashes; 23% result in death. To deter DWIs (Driving While under Influence), MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Drivers) created VIPs (Victim Impact Panels) where victims impact offenders with gory stories, photos, and threats of punishments and loss of freedom, hoping this message will deter DWIs. It is remarkable that although the VIP message is considered a primary DWI intervention, yet no studies have investigated VIP message effects. VIP message effects, their persistence and decay, are chronicled here over the course of 12 years. This study extends an empirical investigation of VIPs, conducted by Woodall, Delaney, Rogers, and Wheeler (2007) (n = 833) during 1994-1996. At 2 years, these researchers found MADD VIP participants' recidivism rates were 30% higher than their DWI School comparison group, trending toward significance at p = .0583. This study supports those results as significant at 12 years. As an extension, it investigates whether reactance theory explains VIP message effects failure. Reactance theory research, a subset of message effects research, explains how emotional, confrontational, and threatening messages induce psychological reactance in the mind of the message receiver, who then seeks to preserve his or her sense of freedom by behaving contrarily (Brehm, 1966). Hierarchically intensifying effects of these theoretical reactance antecedents are studied here in an unusual manner, as they occur in vivo, in real life. The same intervention was observed to have different effects depending on prior conditions and demographics. The emotional high-threat, high-confrontation MADD VIP message coincided with significantly shorter time to recidivism (p = .009, d = 1.64) and significantly higher number of subsequent arrests (p < .0001, d = 1.64) among recent prior offenders, and those with no priors under age 30 (p = .01, d = 0.35). Younger offenders may be associated with more iconoclastic behavior than older offenders (Beirness & Simpson, 1997; Greenberg, 2005; NHTSA, 2008), partially explaining the under-30 age effect. This study furthers persuasive message design as a science and suggests a message-based approach to intervention analysis. There was no effect when MADD VIP was analyzed simply as an intervention. However, there were highly significant effect sizes when the same MADD VIP intervention was analyzed as a message. This study concludes by offering MADD VIP best practice recommendations. Advisors/Committee Members: Woodall, W. Gill, Schuetz, Janice, Rivera, Mario A., McDermott, Virginia, Delaney, Harold.

Subjects/Keywords: Victim Impact panels; MADD; message effects; randomized trial; effect size; drunk driving; DWI; efficacy trial; method problems; methodological problems; communication theory; theory building; rhetorical analysis; triangulation; drunk driving; interventions; covariates; ANOVA; ANCOVA; survival analysis; message context; message content; message function; message intensity; message frequency; message metrics; message pathos; pathos; message decay; decay rate; message decay rate; intent to persuade; persuasion; confrontation; shame; shaming; public shaming; public censure; forewarning; perceived threat; reactance theory; assumptions; sampling error; recruitment error; non-adherence to condition; random assignment error; factorial design; operationalization; theory construct operationalization; methods informed by literature; methodological symbiosis; questionnaire reliability and validity; secondary data sources; public arrest record; public data; covariate operationalization; reactance constructs; content analysis; theme analysis; prior arrest; censored cases; QSR N6; SPSS; Excel; limitations; under-identification; attrition; population attrition; bimodal distribution; dichotomous variables; data splitting; discretizing data; time to recidivism; subsequent arrests; emotional change; emotion score; outliers; reactance antecedent; message dose; message dosage; treatment fidelity; assess treatment fidelity; predictor variables; controlling variables; demographic covariate; demographic predictor; confirmation bias; data bias; interaction effect; treatment effect; message design; fear appeal; message strength; anger; survival analysis; time dependence; mixed methods; study design; message standardization; internal validity; hard data; hard end-point data; marginal sample size; observed variables; intervening factors; intervening variables; sample size; in vivo; hierarchy of effects; emotional threat; older offenders; young offenders; intervention analysis; message-based approach; best practices; DWI intervention; DWI treatment; prior conditions; iconoclast; Drunks Against MADD Mothers; resistance; message design science

Record DetailsSimilar RecordsGoogle PlusoneFacebookTwitterCiteULikeMendeleyreddit

APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Medina, U. E. (2010). MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of New Mexico. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1928/12395

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Medina, Una E. “MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL.” 2010. Doctoral Dissertation, University of New Mexico. Accessed April 14, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/1928/12395.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Medina, Una E. “MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL.” 2010. Web. 14 Apr 2021.

Vancouver:

Medina UE. MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of New Mexico; 2010. [cited 2021 Apr 14]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/12395.

Council of Science Editors:

Medina UE. MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of New Mexico; 2010. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/12395

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