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New Jersey Institute of Technology

1. Bhuyian, Md Nasir Uddin. Reliability study of Zr and Al incorporated hf based high-k dielectric deposited by advanced processing.

Degree: PhD, Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2015, New Jersey Institute of Technology

Hafnium-based high-x dielectric materials have been successfully used in the industry as a key replacement for SiO2 based gate dielectrics in order to continue CMOS device scaling to the 22-nm technology node. Further scaling according to the device roadmap requires the development of oxides with higher x values in order to scale the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) to 0.7 nm or below while achieving low defect densities. In addition, next generation devices need to meet challenges like improved channel mobility, reduced gate leakage current, good control on threshold voltage, lower interface state density, and good reliability. In order to overcome these challenges, improvements of the high-x film properties and deposition methods are highly desirable. In this dissertation, a detail study of Zr and Al incorporated HfO2 based high-κ dielectrics is conducted to investigate improvement in electrical characteristics and reliability. To meet scaling requirements of the gate dielectric to sub 0.7 nm, Zr is added to HfO2 to form Hf1-xZrxO2 with x=0, 0.31 and 0.8 where the dielectric film is deposited by using various intermediate processing conditions, like (i) DADA: intermediate thermal annealing in a cyclical deposition process; (ii) DSDS: similar cyclical process with exposure to SPA Ar plasma; and (iii) As-Dep: the dielectric deposited without any intermediate step. MOSCAPs are formed with TiN metal gate and the reliability of these devices is investigated by subjecting them to a constant voltage stress in the gate injection mode. Stress induced flat-band voltage shift (ΔVFB), stress induced leakage current (SILC) and stress induced interface state degradation are observed. DSDS samples demonstrate the superior characteristics whereas the worst degradation is observed for DADA samples. Time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) shows that DSDS Hf1-xZrxO2 (x=0.8) has the superior characteristics with reduced oxygen vacancy, which is affiliated to electron affinity variation in HfO2 and ZrO2. The trap activation energy levels estimated from the temperature dependent current voltage characteristics also support the observed reliability characteristics for these devices. In another experiment, HfO2 is lightly doped with Al with a variation in Al concentration by depositing intermediate HfAlOx layers. This work has demonstrated a high quality HfO2 based gate stack by depositing atomic layer deposited (ALD) HfAlOx along with HfO2 in a layered structure. In order to get multifold enhancement of the gate stack quality, both Al percentage and the distribution of Al are observed by varying the HfAlOx layer thickness and it is found that < 2% Al/(Al+Hf)% incorporation can result in up to 18% reduction in the average EOT along with up to 41 % reduction in the gate leakage current as compared to the dielectric with no Al content.… Advisors/Committee Members: Durgamadhab Misra, Leonid Tsybeskov, Marek Sosnowski.

Subjects/Keywords: Reliability; High-K dielectrics; Hf1-xZrxO2; HfAlOx; Slot plane antenna plasma; Flat band voltage; Electrical and Electronics

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APA (6th Edition):

Bhuyian, M. N. U. (2015). Reliability study of Zr and Al incorporated hf based high-k dielectric deposited by advanced processing. (Doctoral Dissertation). New Jersey Institute of Technology. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.njit.edu/dissertations/96

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Bhuyian, Md Nasir Uddin. “Reliability study of Zr and Al incorporated hf based high-k dielectric deposited by advanced processing.” 2015. Doctoral Dissertation, New Jersey Institute of Technology. Accessed August 13, 2020. https://digitalcommons.njit.edu/dissertations/96.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Bhuyian, Md Nasir Uddin. “Reliability study of Zr and Al incorporated hf based high-k dielectric deposited by advanced processing.” 2015. Web. 13 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Bhuyian MNU. Reliability study of Zr and Al incorporated hf based high-k dielectric deposited by advanced processing. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. New Jersey Institute of Technology; 2015. [cited 2020 Aug 13]. Available from: https://digitalcommons.njit.edu/dissertations/96.

Council of Science Editors:

Bhuyian MNU. Reliability study of Zr and Al incorporated hf based high-k dielectric deposited by advanced processing. [Doctoral Dissertation]. New Jersey Institute of Technology; 2015. Available from: https://digitalcommons.njit.edu/dissertations/96


NSYSU

2. Chang, Liang-Cyuan. The study of BaTiO3-gated pH-ISFET using sol-gel processes.

Degree: Master, Electrical Engineering, 2007, NSYSU

Ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFET's) have many advantages than the conventional ion selective electrodes. There exhibt the advantages of small size, fast response and compatible with conventional IC technologies. The general structure of ISFET is the same as that of MOSFET. However, the main difference is that the metal gate in MOSFET is replaced by reference electrode/electrolyte/sensing insulator structure in ISFET. The insulator surface will suffer the change of potential as the sample is immersed into electrolyte, by which, we can measure the pH or other ionic concentration. Amorphous barium titanate (a-BaTiO3) thin film as the pH-sensing layer of the ion-sensitive field-effect transistor is prepared by a sol-gel technique. The stock solution in a concentration about 0.42M is obtained. The barium titanate thin films are deposited on SiO2(1000Å)/p-Si substrates, and the EIS structure is frabricated. The fabrication parameters of BaTiO3 thin films are made up of the thickness of 120-360 nm and the firing temperature between 350â and 850â. The flat-band voltage(ÎVBF) is shifted by C-V measurement. The pH sensitivity is on the downside because the thin films thickness and defect increase. The results reveal the MIS C-V curve. The optimum conditions are found that the annealing temperature is about 350â, and the sensitivity of about 59.02 mV/pH with regression of 0.9991. The pH response of 40-59 mV/pH in the range of pH 2-12 exists when the a-BaTiO3 thin film with thickness of about 120-360nm at the firing temperature between 350â and 550âare prepared. To decrease the fabrication cost, so the numbers of mask and fabrication steps should be minimized, which are reduced to two from four and 10 from 16 steps. Two masks were used to accomplish a-BaTiO3 gated ISFET. I-V curve shows that the a-BaTiO3 gated ISFET exhibits pH responses of about 38 ~48.7 mV/pH in the linear region(IDS=30 μA and VDSï¼0.2 V), and -11~-24.8 μA/pH in the satiation region(VGS=3 V and VDSï¼3.5 V), and the regression of above 0.997 was achieved. Both of C-V and I-V curves revealed the BaTiO3 thin films could be used in the ISFET gate. Advisors/Committee Members: Ying-Chung Chen (committee member), Wei-Hsing Tuan (chair), Chen-Chia Chou (chair), Mau-Phon Houng (chair), Cheng-Fu Yang (chair).

Subjects/Keywords: Flat band voltage; EIS structure; sol-gel; ISFET; a-BaTiO3; MIS structure

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APA (6th Edition):

Chang, L. (2007). The study of BaTiO3-gated pH-ISFET using sol-gel processes. (Thesis). NSYSU. Retrieved from http://etd.lib.nsysu.edu.tw/ETD-db/ETD-search/view_etd?URN=etd-0802107-133110

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Chang, Liang-Cyuan. “The study of BaTiO3-gated pH-ISFET using sol-gel processes.” 2007. Thesis, NSYSU. Accessed August 13, 2020. http://etd.lib.nsysu.edu.tw/ETD-db/ETD-search/view_etd?URN=etd-0802107-133110.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Chang, Liang-Cyuan. “The study of BaTiO3-gated pH-ISFET using sol-gel processes.” 2007. Web. 13 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Chang L. The study of BaTiO3-gated pH-ISFET using sol-gel processes. [Internet] [Thesis]. NSYSU; 2007. [cited 2020 Aug 13]. Available from: http://etd.lib.nsysu.edu.tw/ETD-db/ETD-search/view_etd?URN=etd-0802107-133110.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Chang L. The study of BaTiO3-gated pH-ISFET using sol-gel processes. [Thesis]. NSYSU; 2007. Available from: http://etd.lib.nsysu.edu.tw/ETD-db/ETD-search/view_etd?URN=etd-0802107-133110

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


North Carolina State University

3. Jur, Jesse Stephen. Lanthanide-based Oxides and Silicates for High-K Gate Dielectric Applications.

Degree: PhD, Materials Science and Engineering, 2007, North Carolina State University

The ability to improve performance of the high-end metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is highly reliant on the dimensional scaling of such a device. In scaling, a decrease in dielectric thickness results in high leakage current between the electrode and the substrate by way of direct tunneling through the gate dielectric. Observation of a high leakage current when the standard gate dielectric, SiO2, is decreased below a thickness of 1.5 nm requires engineering of a replacement dielectric that is much more scalable. This high- dielectric allows for a physically thicker oxide, reducing leakage current. Integration of select lanthanide-based oxides and silicates, in particular lanthanum oxide and silicate, into MOS gate stack devices is examined. The quality of the high-K dielectrics is monitored electrically to determine properties such as equivalent oxide thickness, leakage current density and defect densities. In addition, analytical characterization of the dielectric and the gate stack is provided to examine the materialistic significance to the change of the electrical properties of the devices. It is shown that optimization of low-temperature processing can result in MOS devices with an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) as low 5 Å and a leakage current density of 5.0 A⁄cm2. High-temperature processing, consistent with a MOSFET source-drain activation anneal, yields MOS devices with an EOT as low as 1.1 nm after optimization of the TaN/W electrode properties. The decrease in the device effective work function (phi_M,eff) observed in these samples is examined in detail. First, as a La2O3 capping layer on HfSiO(N), the shift yields ideal-phi_M,eff values for nMOSFET deices (4.0 eV) that were previously inaccessible. Other lanthanide oxides (Dy, Ho and Yb) used as capping layers show similar effects. It is also shown that tuning of phi_M,eff can be realized by controlling the extent of lanthanide-silicate formation. This research, conducted in conjunction with SEMATECH and the SRC, represents a significant technological advancement in realizing 45 and sub-45 nm MOSFET device nodes. Advisors/Committee Members: Angus Kingon, Committee Chair (advisor), Gregory Parsons, Committee Member (advisor), Jon-Paul Maria, Committee Member (advisor), Mark Johnson, Committee Member (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: dc magnetron sputtering; physical vapor deposition; tungsten oxide; tungsten; W; tantalum nitride; TaN; lanthanum; lanthanum oxide; La; La2O3; La2SiO5; lanthanum silicate; La2Si2O7; Ho; holmium; holmium oxide; cation diffusion; back-side SIMS; secondary ion mass spectroscopy; SIMS; XRD; x-ray diffraction; molecular beam deposition; PMA; XPS; x-ray photoemission spectroscopy; post metallization anneal; RCA; chemical oxide; metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor; MBE; silica; SiO2; interfacial layer; gate dielectric; dielectric; silicate; oxide; high-kappa; EOT; equivalent oxide thickness; high-k; band diagram; valance band offset; conduction band offset; band gap energy; effective work function; work function; voltage shift; threshold voltage; flat band voltage; leakage current; capacitance; mobility; electronic materials; scaling; Moore?s Law; MIS; MOS; MOSFET; high resolution transmission electron microscopy; HRTEM; RTA; rapid thermal anneal; PVD; tantalum; Ta; gate electrode; metal electrode; hafnium silicate; hafnium oxide; hafnium; ytterbium; ytterbium oxide; Yb; dysprosium oxide; dysprosium; Dy; E-beam evaporation; thermal evaporation; forming gas anneal; ozone; ammonia anneal; FGA

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Jur, J. S. (2007). Lanthanide-based Oxides and Silicates for High-K Gate Dielectric Applications. (Doctoral Dissertation). North Carolina State University. Retrieved from http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/5447

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Jur, Jesse Stephen. “Lanthanide-based Oxides and Silicates for High-K Gate Dielectric Applications.” 2007. Doctoral Dissertation, North Carolina State University. Accessed August 13, 2020. http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/5447.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Jur, Jesse Stephen. “Lanthanide-based Oxides and Silicates for High-K Gate Dielectric Applications.” 2007. Web. 13 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Jur JS. Lanthanide-based Oxides and Silicates for High-K Gate Dielectric Applications. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. North Carolina State University; 2007. [cited 2020 Aug 13]. Available from: http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/5447.

Council of Science Editors:

Jur JS. Lanthanide-based Oxides and Silicates for High-K Gate Dielectric Applications. [Doctoral Dissertation]. North Carolina State University; 2007. Available from: http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/5447

.