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Kent State University

1. Henning, Kyle Joseph. The Development of a Metacognitive Disambiguation Effect: Novel Name Presentation Not Required.

Degree: MA, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Psychology, 2018, Kent State University

Children tend to select a novel object rather than a familiar object when asked to identify the referent of a novel label. Current accounts of this so-called disambiguation effect do not address whether children have an abstract metacognitive representation of the effect. Do they represent their selection for each novel label as being based on the novelty contrast between the objects? In two experiments (each N = 48), 3- and 4-year-olds were told they were playing a game. In each round, they completed a disambiguation trial for a different novel label. After four rounds, they received additional rounds in which after being shown the familiar and unfamiliar object, but before being told the novel label, they were asked which object “was going to be right.” If children represented their responses in the game as based on a novelty contrast, they would predict that the unfamiliar object would be the correct response. Most 4-year-olds made this prediction, whereas most 3-year-olds did not. Performance was associated with the accuracy of children’s reports of their object name knowledge. Development of a representation of the disambiguation effect as a novelty contrast may depend on development of a tendency to represent familiar objects as “ones I know” and unfamiliar objects as “ones I don’t know.” Advisors/Committee Members: Merriman, William (Advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Cognitive Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Psychology; disambiguation effect; metacognition; metalinguistic awareness; metacognitive representations

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APA (6th Edition):

Henning, K. J. (2018). The Development of a Metacognitive Disambiguation Effect: Novel Name Presentation Not Required. (Masters Thesis). Kent State University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1532635695038685

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Henning, Kyle Joseph. “The Development of a Metacognitive Disambiguation Effect: Novel Name Presentation Not Required.” 2018. Masters Thesis, Kent State University. Accessed July 14, 2020. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1532635695038685.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Henning, Kyle Joseph. “The Development of a Metacognitive Disambiguation Effect: Novel Name Presentation Not Required.” 2018. Web. 14 Jul 2020.

Vancouver:

Henning KJ. The Development of a Metacognitive Disambiguation Effect: Novel Name Presentation Not Required. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Kent State University; 2018. [cited 2020 Jul 14]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1532635695038685.

Council of Science Editors:

Henning KJ. The Development of a Metacognitive Disambiguation Effect: Novel Name Presentation Not Required. [Masters Thesis]. Kent State University; 2018. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1532635695038685


University of Stirling

2. Gollek, Cornelia. Metacognitive development and the disambiguation effect in monolingual and bilingual children.

Degree: PhD, 2013, University of Stirling

Research suggests that children are only able to flexibly apply more than one label (e.g. mouse and animal) in one situation with one conversational partner after they pass standard false belief tasks. Both abilities have been attributed to the understanding of perspective. The aim of the studies was to extend previous research to examine the disambiguation effect, children’s tendency to select an unfamiliar object in the presence of another but familiar object as referent for a novel word. Theoretical considerations suggest this effect initially results from a lack of understanding perspective. Five studies were conducted in Scotland and Austria, involving 243 children between the ages of 2.5 and 6.5. Studies 1 to 3 compared the standard disambiguation task with a task in which a strong pragmatic cue indicates the familiar object is the correct referent. Performances on these tasks were compared with performances on the false belief task, the alternative naming task, as well as tests of executive functioning. Studies 4 and 5 extended these methods to examine bilingual children’s metacognitive abilities in relation to word learning. Children become able to suspend the disambiguation effect when presented with strong pragmatic cues at the same time as they pass false belief and alternative naming tasks (Experiment 1). This can neither be attributed to impulsivity or the ability to inhibit a response, nor order effects of pragmatic cues and novel words (Experiment 2). Children’s ability to apply two labels to one object in a correction task also related to their perspectival understanding. Previous findings that suggested that younger children could produce multiple labels in a misnaming paradigm were not replicated (Experiment 3 a, b). The developmental change in children’s metalinguistic behaviour was demonstrated to follow the same trajectory in monolinguals, bilinguals and children exposed to another language (Experiment 4 and 5). Bilinguals show a marginally better ability to recall novel foreign language labels. The disambiguation effect is the result of cognitive immaturity in young children. Older children show a change in behaviour at the same time as they present more metacognitive maturity. Common development with theory of mind and metalinguistic abilities is attributed to an understanding of perspective.

Subjects/Keywords: 155.4; word learning; metacognition; disambiguation effect; Theory of Mind; perspectival understanding; bilingual children; Bilingualism in children; Verbal ability in children; Metacognition in children

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Gollek, C. (2013). Metacognitive development and the disambiguation effect in monolingual and bilingual children. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Stirling. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1893/20185

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Gollek, Cornelia. “Metacognitive development and the disambiguation effect in monolingual and bilingual children.” 2013. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Stirling. Accessed July 14, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/1893/20185.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Gollek, Cornelia. “Metacognitive development and the disambiguation effect in monolingual and bilingual children.” 2013. Web. 14 Jul 2020.

Vancouver:

Gollek C. Metacognitive development and the disambiguation effect in monolingual and bilingual children. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Stirling; 2013. [cited 2020 Jul 14]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/20185.

Council of Science Editors:

Gollek C. Metacognitive development and the disambiguation effect in monolingual and bilingual children. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Stirling; 2013. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/20185

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