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Stellenbosch University

1. Huysamer, Anton Jean. An assessment of alternative postharvest technologies for the disinfestation of fresh Cape Flora cut flowers for export from South Africa.

Degree: MSc, Conservation Ecology and Entomology, 2018, Stellenbosch University

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A successful industry has developed around the export of fresh Proteaceae cut flowers from South Africa. Phytosanitary insects are a barrier to export, as South African Proteaceae associates with a considerable entomofauna. The development of alternative postharvest disinfestation technologies could reduce these interceptions and promote market access. Surveys on export material were conducted to determine which pests are most problematic when exporting Proteaceae. A total of 82 interceptions were made, comprising of eight insect orders and 26 insect families. Although many interceptions were as a result of solitary individuals, multiple interceptions consisted of many individuals of western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and protea itch mite (Procotolaelaps vandenbergii). These pests were selected as the key pests on which to focus for disinfestation using alternative postharvest technologies not yet utilised for Proteaceae. Controlled Atmosphere and Temperature Treatment Systems (CATTS) technology was assessed as a potential disinfestation tool for fresh Proteaceae cut flowers. The tested commodities were Leucospermum ‗Veldfire‘, Protea magnifica ‗Barbi‘, Leucadendron ‗Safari sunset‘ and ‗Jade pearl‘, and Geraldton wax ‗Ofir‘ (Myrtaceae). CATTS treatments consisted of temperature ramps of 35°C/hour and 30°C/hour from 23°C to 40°C, with a 15 min soak at 40°C, and 35°C/hour and 30°C/hour from 23°C to 50°C, with a 15 min soak at 50°C, under modified atmospheres of 1% O2, 15% CO2 in N2. Treated stems were subjected to vase life studies after treatment, or following air- and sea-freight storage simulations at 2°C for 3 or 21 days respectively. Leucospermum ‗Veldfire‘ did not withstand treatments, as style wilting reduced overall quality. Protea magnifica ‗Barbi‘ withstood some treatments, maintaining comparable quality to control stems in the vase immediately after treatment. Both Leucadendron commodities withstood treatments well, and maintained marketable quality following treatment, air- and sea-freight simulations. Geraldton wax ‗Ofir‘ maintained quality in vase immediately after and following air-freight simulations. CATTS treatments of 35°C/hour and 30°C/hour to 40°C in 1% O2, 15% CO2 in N2 resulted in 100% mortality in western flower thrips and protea itch mites within 24 hours of treatment. Postharvest fumigation treatment with ethyl formate (EF) was also assessed as a potential disinfestation technology. Concentrations ranged from 18.53g/m3 to 151.47g/m3 EF, and durations ranging from 30 mins to 3 hours for the same cut flower commodities listed above for CATTS treatments. Further trials on Geraldton wax ‗Ofir‘ consisted of 10g/m3 and 20g/m3 for 1 and 2 hours. All treatments resulted in reduction in overall quality of treated fresh goods. EF fumigations of 18.53g/m3 for 1 and 2 hours achieved 100% mortality within 24 hours of treatment in western flower thrips and protea itch mites, but excessive post fumigation damage renders EF unsuitable. The… Advisors/Committee Members: Johnson, Shelley, Hoffman, Lynne, Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Conservation Ecology and Entomology..

Subjects/Keywords: Proteaceae  – Exports  – South Africa; Cape flora cut flowers  – Exports  – South Africa; Cape cut flowers  – exports  – South Africa; Thrips  – Insect pests  – Proteaceae  – South Africa; Controlled atmosphere and temperature systems; Postharvest technology of Cape flora cut flowers  – Fumigation  – South Africa; Cape flora cut flowers  – Postharvest technology  – Fumigation  – South Africa; UCTD

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Huysamer, A. J. (2018). An assessment of alternative postharvest technologies for the disinfestation of fresh Cape Flora cut flowers for export from South Africa. (Masters Thesis). Stellenbosch University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/104880

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Huysamer, Anton Jean. “An assessment of alternative postharvest technologies for the disinfestation of fresh Cape Flora cut flowers for export from South Africa.” 2018. Masters Thesis, Stellenbosch University. Accessed October 18, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/104880.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Huysamer, Anton Jean. “An assessment of alternative postharvest technologies for the disinfestation of fresh Cape Flora cut flowers for export from South Africa.” 2018. Web. 18 Oct 2019.

Vancouver:

Huysamer AJ. An assessment of alternative postharvest technologies for the disinfestation of fresh Cape Flora cut flowers for export from South Africa. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Stellenbosch University; 2018. [cited 2019 Oct 18]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/104880.

Council of Science Editors:

Huysamer AJ. An assessment of alternative postharvest technologies for the disinfestation of fresh Cape Flora cut flowers for export from South Africa. [Masters Thesis]. Stellenbosch University; 2018. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/104880

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