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Bowling Green State University

1. Birkholz, Tyler M. Exploring the Role of Calcium-Binding Protein Calreticulin in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.

Degree: MS, Biological Sciences, 2019, Bowling Green State University

The master circadian clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus of vertebrates receives information from the retina that entrains the clock to cycles of light and darkness in the animal’s environment. This timing signal is important for maintaining the appropriate organization of circadian rhythms generated throughout the body, which have many effects on health, development, and aging. One potential influence on entrainment is from retinal light signals acting on SCN cells that have protein expression patterns typical of stem cells. These stem-like cells may have plasticity in their interactions allowing circadian rhythms generated in the SCN to be modified when needed to adapt to changing environmental or internal conditions. Calcium-binding proteins in SCN cells have important functions in the entrainment process, but the role of one of these proteins, calreticulin (CALR), has not been examined in the SCN. This study characterized the spatial pattern of CALR-expressing SCN cells and their distribution among neurons (MAP2-positive), glial cells (GFAP-positive), and stem-like cells (SOX2-positive) by using immunocytochemistry and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Cells expressing significant levels of CALR were found throughout most of the SCN, with fewer in the core region. In the SCN, 86.9% of CALR cells were classified as neurons, 19.1% as astrocytic glial cells, and 60.33% as stem-like cells according to immunofluorescence imaging. To determine whether CALR expression can be induced by a stimulus that can entrain the SCN circadian clock a group of mice were exposed to two hours of light in the early portion of the night and were compared with mice remaining in darkness. Although SCN neurons did not show a significant response to the stimulus, non-neuronal cells including glial cells did, showing a two-fold increase in percentage of CALR-positive cells. We conclude that a substantial number of the CALR cells, 98.6%, express stem-marker SOX2 elevated, suggesting CALR could have an important role in this enigmatic cell type. We also conclude that SCN glial cells respond to the excitation from an entraining light signal with an increase in number that express elevated CALR, suggesting a role for this ubiquitous protein in Ca2+-regulated events during entrainment. Advisors/Committee Members: Guesz, Michael (Advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Biology; Molecular Biology; Neurosciences; circadian; calcium; calcium-binding proteins; calreticulin; stem cells; calregulin; neuroscience; induction

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Birkholz, T. M. (2019). Exploring the Role of Calcium-Binding Protein Calreticulin in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus. (Masters Thesis). Bowling Green State University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=bgsu1562689789471245

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Birkholz, Tyler M. “Exploring the Role of Calcium-Binding Protein Calreticulin in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.” 2019. Masters Thesis, Bowling Green State University. Accessed August 24, 2019. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=bgsu1562689789471245.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Birkholz, Tyler M. “Exploring the Role of Calcium-Binding Protein Calreticulin in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.” 2019. Web. 24 Aug 2019.

Vancouver:

Birkholz TM. Exploring the Role of Calcium-Binding Protein Calreticulin in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Bowling Green State University; 2019. [cited 2019 Aug 24]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=bgsu1562689789471245.

Council of Science Editors:

Birkholz TM. Exploring the Role of Calcium-Binding Protein Calreticulin in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus. [Masters Thesis]. Bowling Green State University; 2019. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=bgsu1562689789471245

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