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1. Baldwin, Andrea Michelle. Synthesis and Functionalization of Heterocycles via Non-Covalent Catalysis.

Degree: PhD, Chemistry, 2016, The Ohio State University

Hydrogen-bond donor (HBD) catalysis has emerged as a remarkable platform for the activation of reactants through non-covalent interactions. This class of organocatalysts provides a sustainable alternative to transition metal catalysis and avoids the difficulties associated with trace metal removal. Classically, HBD catalyst interactions proceed in two major pathways: direct activation or anion recognition. Enhanced HBD catalysts that display improved performance under both modes of action allow for the discovery of new reactivity patterns that have previously been unattainable. Two new classes of elegantly designed non-covalent catalysts have been explored in the synthesis and functionalization of heterocycles.Boronate ureas, an internal Lewis acid assisted urea, are particularly well suited for the direct activation of molecules containing nitro-functionality. Donor-acceptor cyclopropanes are useful building blocks in synthetic chemistry due to the electronic nature of the strained ring and the intrinsic functionality. Boronate ureas were applied toward development of the first cycloaddition of nitrones with nitrocyclopropane carboxylates in the presence of an enhanced non-covalent catalyst. The highly functionalized 1,2-oxazinane core synthesized in this single step is a prominent scaffold in many bioactive targets. With this strategy, a small library of oxazinane products has been synthesized in up to 99% yield and 4:1 dr. A second class of enhanced catalysts, silanediols, have a propensity to recognize the ether functionality. This molecular recognition was exploited in the context of direct epoxide activation for carbon dioxide fixation. Typically, with organocatalytic cyclic carbonate formation, very few types of functional groups are able to affect this transformation under mild conditions; often, high temperatures, long reaction times, and high pressures of carbon dioxide are necessary for desired product formation. With only 10 mol % of a silanediol-tetrabutylammonium iodide co-catalyst system, this transformation can be accomplished at room temperature using only one bar of carbon dioxide.Having established the ability of silanediols to work in tandem with anions, chiral silanediols were investigated in enantioselective anion-binding catalysis to construct chromanones. To date, introduction of carbonyl-containing nucleophiles in an intermolecular fashion has only been performed racemically. However, the unique chemical environment accessible with novel chiral silanediols is able to control carbon-carbon bond formation between silyl ketene acetals and benzopyrylium salts generated in situ from chromone derivatives. When coupled with recrystallization, synthetically useful enantioselectivities of up to 74% can be obtained. Importantly, this is the first example of anion-binding catalysis utilizing the benzopyrylium ions of chromenones, as well as an innovative strategy to incorporate complex alkyl functionality directly into the scaffold of chromanones. Advisors/Committee Members: Mattson, Anita (Advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Organic Chemistry; organocatalysis; hydrogen bond donor catalysis; silanediols; boronate ureas; oxazinanes; carbonates; chromanones; asymmetric catalysis

…1 1.1 Boronate Ureas as Catalysts for Direct Activation of Nitro Functionality… …1 1.1.2 Strategic Design of Boronate Ureas… …26 1.5.2 Preparation and Characterization of Boronate Ureas… …5 Figure 1.4 Enhanced Binding of Boronate Ureas… …Biomol. Chem. 2013, 11, 5793–5797. Used with permission 1.1 Boronate Ureas as Catalysts for… 

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APA (6th Edition):

Baldwin, A. M. (2016). Synthesis and Functionalization of Heterocycles via Non-Covalent Catalysis. (Doctoral Dissertation). The Ohio State University. Retrieved from

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Baldwin, Andrea Michelle. “Synthesis and Functionalization of Heterocycles via Non-Covalent Catalysis.” 2016. Doctoral Dissertation, The Ohio State University. Accessed September 23, 2020.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Baldwin, Andrea Michelle. “Synthesis and Functionalization of Heterocycles via Non-Covalent Catalysis.” 2016. Web. 23 Sep 2020.


Baldwin AM. Synthesis and Functionalization of Heterocycles via Non-Covalent Catalysis. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. The Ohio State University; 2016. [cited 2020 Sep 23]. Available from:

Council of Science Editors:

Baldwin AM. Synthesis and Functionalization of Heterocycles via Non-Covalent Catalysis. [Doctoral Dissertation]. The Ohio State University; 2016. Available from: