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The Ohio State University

1. Solloway, Tyler. Combining approach-gain and avoid-loss frames increases message effectiveness.

Degree: PhD, Communication, 2014, The Ohio State University

Gain-loss framing has produced inconsistent results in communication (O’Keefe & Jensen, 2006, 2007, 2009). Yet, studies from psychology demonstrate consistent gain-loss message effects (Higgins, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2005). Regulatory focus theory suggests the lack of operational clarity in communication applications may be the one of the reasons for inconsistent results. It is proposed that communication scholars use approach-gain and avoid-loss frames to create effective messages. The dissertation extends regulatory focus theory by arguing (a) frames’ relationship with perceived effectiveness is mediated by attention to the frames, (b) the combination of approach-gain and avoid-loss frames will receive the most attention, when the message has low to moderate arousing content, and (c) the combination of approach-gain and avoid-loss will be most effective. Two within-subjects experiments were conducted, using visual fixations to operationalize attention. Study 1 examined the combination of approach-gain and avoid-loss frames, without manipulating arousing content. Study 2 examined the combination of frames and manipulated arousing content. The two studies revealed that individuals looked the most at approach-gain information, and attention to information did not influence perceived message effectiveness. As predicted, when arousal was controlled for, messages with the combination of approach-gain and avoid-loss frames were perceived as more effective than messages with only one type of frame. Advisors/Committee Members: Wang, Zheng (Joyce) (Advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Communication; Marketing; gain loss framing; approach-gain; avoid-loss; regulatory focus theory; dual motivation theory; decision field theory; arousal; attention to messages; message effectiveness; sensation seeking; prosocial messaging; public service announcements

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APA (6th Edition):

Solloway, T. (2014). Combining approach-gain and avoid-loss frames increases message effectiveness. (Doctoral Dissertation). The Ohio State University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1417619273

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Solloway, Tyler. “Combining approach-gain and avoid-loss frames increases message effectiveness.” 2014. Doctoral Dissertation, The Ohio State University. Accessed January 17, 2021. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1417619273.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Solloway, Tyler. “Combining approach-gain and avoid-loss frames increases message effectiveness.” 2014. Web. 17 Jan 2021.

Vancouver:

Solloway T. Combining approach-gain and avoid-loss frames increases message effectiveness. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. The Ohio State University; 2014. [cited 2021 Jan 17]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1417619273.

Council of Science Editors:

Solloway T. Combining approach-gain and avoid-loss frames increases message effectiveness. [Doctoral Dissertation]. The Ohio State University; 2014. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1417619273

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