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University of Adelaide

1. Heathcote, Anthony. Remember forever: relationships with the living and the dead in a Vietnamese online memorial site.

Degree: 2015, University of Adelaide

This thesis is concerned with online memorialisation in contemporary Vietnam. It argues that the experiences of Vietnamese who participate in the online memorial site Nghĩa Trang Online highlight the continuities as well as tensions which exist between online, offline and other world (the world of the dead) communications. At its starting point, this thesis situates Vietnamese online interactions within the cultural practice of ancestor worship in Vietnam, which is the dominant relationship Vietnamese have with the dead. It demonstrates that online interactions with the dead which may seem new and untraditional are profoundly embedded in ancestor worship, and that the practice of ancestor worship itself is one which has transformed, through political, technological, economic and cultural changes. These examinations also feed into wider socio-political issues in Vietnam, including the online memorialisation of fetuses after an abortion, and the remembering of revolutionary martyrs (liệt sĩ) killed during the American/Vietnam War in contrast to the forgetting of soldiers in the ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam/South Vietnamese Army). This thesis also argues that Nghĩa Trang Online engenders a community where Vietnamese can express their emotions relating to loss, continue a relationship with the deceased through comments and online offerings, and give and receive support with fellow members. Such emotional expression is often disenfranchised in Vietnamese society and so online memorialisation becomes a new vehicle for the enfranchisement of grief. This thesis is based on twelve months’ fieldwork between 2012-2013 in Vietnam within the major cities of Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi and Da Nang, through online and offline participant observation in the country’s largest online memorial, Nghĩa Trang Online (Cemetery Online). The site is also known as Nhớ Mãi (Remember Forever). Originating in 2008, the website currently has around 60,000 members who use the memorial to create online tombs for the dead, ‘light’ candles and ‘burn’ incense, create online offerings, and remember and communicate with the living and the dead. A number of members also meet in person and participate in death days, cemetery visits, birthdays, weddings, charity events and other social gatherings. The Internet is burgeoning with spaces dedicated to remembering the dead through social networking sites, blogs, museums, archives, cemeteries and memorials. While there is an expanding body of research contributing to this field, the interactions between the online, offline and the other world in contemporary Vietnam have not been anthropologically researched. This work aims to fill this gap, focusing on the extraordinarily diverse intersection of remembrance, continuing relationships, community, emotion and online memorialisation in contemporary Vietnam. Advisors/Committee Members: Hemer, Susan (advisor), Humphreys, Sal (advisor), School of Social Sciences (school).

Subjects/Keywords: Nghĩa Trang Online; Nhomai.vn; Anthropology; Ancestor Worship; Death; Ethnography; Vietnam; Online Memorial; Community; Continuing Bonds; Grief; Emotion; Forgetting; Abortion; Revolutionary Martyrs; ARVN; Reflexivity

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Heathcote, A. (2015). Remember forever: relationships with the living and the dead in a Vietnamese online memorial site. (Thesis). University of Adelaide. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2440/98166

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Heathcote, Anthony. “Remember forever: relationships with the living and the dead in a Vietnamese online memorial site.” 2015. Thesis, University of Adelaide. Accessed December 14, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/98166.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Heathcote, Anthony. “Remember forever: relationships with the living and the dead in a Vietnamese online memorial site.” 2015. Web. 14 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Heathcote A. Remember forever: relationships with the living and the dead in a Vietnamese online memorial site. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Adelaide; 2015. [cited 2019 Dec 14]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/98166.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Heathcote A. Remember forever: relationships with the living and the dead in a Vietnamese online memorial site. [Thesis]. University of Adelaide; 2015. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/98166

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

2. Ritchie, George Forman Michael. 'Pay any price, bear any burden': The U.S. Army's Counter-Insurgency Doctrine from Kennedy to the Vietnam War .

Degree: 2017, University of St. Andrews

This thesis is an analysis of the U.S. Army’s counter-insurgency doctrine from its roots to its application in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Contrary to the arguments of a specific section of scholars, the Army did not fail to defeat the National Liberation Front (NLF) because it did not use counter-insurgency methods. This thesis explains that the Army developed a comprehensive, albeit flawed, counter-insurgency doctrine and applied it in South Vietnam. While the Army’s counter-insurgency doctrine had serious deficiencies, it was the deeply unsound South Vietnamese government and the NLF’s formidable political revolution that were the primary reasons for its failure to achieve its objectives. This thesis utilises the body of literature produced by U.S. Army officers, officers of allied nations and academics during the creation of the Army’s counter-insurgency doctrine, as well as the field manuals that resulted from this research. These sources reveal the self-interest of Army commanders in their pursuit of a counter-insurgency mission, the purpose of which was to reverse the reductions enforced upon the Army during the 1950s. Crucially, these sources also display the Army’s perception of insurgencies in the developing world as the result of Communist-bloc attempts to expand communism. This perception, as well as the overconfidence of much of the Army’s leadership, was influential in shaping counter-insurgency doctrine. The Army’s self-interest put it on a path of its own making that led to the Vietnam War. The Army’s field manuals on counter-insurgency warfare show it expected to face an insurgency that was born out of the Cold War struggle and its methods reflected this belief. Therefore, it did not grasp that the NLF’s revolution had deep-seated historical roots. The Army’s counter-insurgency programmes, which emphasised civic action and destruction of guerrillas, were wholly ineffective in eradicating the NLF’s largely political revolution. Advisors/Committee Members: De Groot, Gerard J (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Vietnam War; U.S. Army; Counterinsurgency; Insurgency; Viet Cong; National Liberation Front; South Vietnam; ARVN; COIN; Cold War; Wars of national liberation

…and love. iii Abbreviations APC Armoured Personnel Carrier ARVN Army of the Republic… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Ritchie, G. F. M. (2017). 'Pay any price, bear any burden': The U.S. Army's Counter-Insurgency Doctrine from Kennedy to the Vietnam War . (Thesis). University of St. Andrews. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10023/11738

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Ritchie, George Forman Michael. “'Pay any price, bear any burden': The U.S. Army's Counter-Insurgency Doctrine from Kennedy to the Vietnam War .” 2017. Thesis, University of St. Andrews. Accessed December 14, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10023/11738.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Ritchie, George Forman Michael. “'Pay any price, bear any burden': The U.S. Army's Counter-Insurgency Doctrine from Kennedy to the Vietnam War .” 2017. Web. 14 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Ritchie GFM. 'Pay any price, bear any burden': The U.S. Army's Counter-Insurgency Doctrine from Kennedy to the Vietnam War . [Internet] [Thesis]. University of St. Andrews; 2017. [cited 2019 Dec 14]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10023/11738.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Ritchie GFM. 'Pay any price, bear any burden': The U.S. Army's Counter-Insurgency Doctrine from Kennedy to the Vietnam War . [Thesis]. University of St. Andrews; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10023/11738

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


Texas A&M University

3. Hawkins, John Michael. The Limits of Fire Support: American Finances and Firepower Restraint during the Vietnam War.

Degree: 2013, Texas A&M University

Excessive unobserved firepower expenditures by Allied forces during the Vietnam War defied the traditional counterinsurgency principle that population protection should be valued more than destruction of the enemy. Many historians have pointed to this discontinuity in their arguments, but none have examined the available firepower records in detail. This study compiles and analyzes available, artillery-related U.S. and Allied archival records to test historical assertions about the balance between conventional and counterinsurgent military strategy as it changed over time. It finds that, between 1965 and 1970, the commanders of the U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), Generals William Westmoreland and Creighton Abrams, shared significant continuity of strategic and tactical thought. Both commanders tolerated U.S. Army, Marine Corps, and Allied unobserved firepower at levels inappropriate for counterinsurgency and both reduced Army harassment and interdiction fire (H&I) as a response to increasing budgetary pressure. Before 1968, the Army expended nearly 40 percent of artillery ammunition as H&I ? a form of unobserved fire that sought merely to hinder enemy movement and to lower enemy morale, rather than to inflict any appreciable enemy casualties. To save money, Westmoreland reduced H&I, or ?interdiction? after a semantic name change in February 1968, to just over 29 percent of ammunition expended in July 1968, the first full month of Abrams? command. Abrams likewise pursued dollar savings with his ?Five-by-Five Plan? of August 1968 that reduced Army artillery interdiction expenditures to nearly ten percent of ammunition by January 1969. Yet Abrams allowed Army interdiction to stabilize near this level until early 1970, when recurring financial pressure prompted him to virtually eliminate the practice. Meanwhile, Marines fired H&I at historically high rates into the final months of 1970 and Australian ?Harassing Fire? surpassed Army and Marine Corps totals during the same period. South Vietnamese artillery also fired high rates of H&I, but Filipino and Thai artillery eschewed H&I in quiet areas of operation and Republic of Korea [ROK] forces abandoned H&I in late 1968 as a direct response to MACV?s budgetary pressure. Financial pressure, rather than strategic change, drove MACV?s unobserved firepower reductions during the Vietnam War. Advisors/Committee Members: Dawson, Joseph G. (advisor), Adams, R.J.Q. (committee member), Anderson, Terry H. (committee member), Bradford, James C. (committee member), Hermann, Charles (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: 11th marines; 12th marines; abrams; air force; allied; american way of war; ammunition; army; artillery; attrition; arvn; australian; b-52; birtle; budget; cap; cea; classical; clausewitz; clifford; coled-v; collins; communist; congress; constraints; conventional; counter-battery; counterinsurgency; dollar; expenditures; filipino; finances; fire support; firepower; five-by-five; free world military; fwmaf; h&i; haines; harold; harrassment; hunt; hybrid; interdiction; johnson; kalergis; komer; korean; krepinevich; laird; leonard taylor; lewy; lyndon; macv; marines; mcnamara; mekong; nagl; new zealand; nixon; nva; observed; operations; philippine; preemptive; preparatory; resor; restraint; riverine; rok; savings; sensors; sorley; south vietnamese; strategy; summers; tactics; thai; third country; trinity; unconventional; unobserved; usarv; van fleet; viet cong; vietnam; westmoreland; wheeler; wise men

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Hawkins, J. M. (2013). The Limits of Fire Support: American Finances and Firepower Restraint during the Vietnam War. (Thesis). Texas A&M University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/151185

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Hawkins, John Michael. “The Limits of Fire Support: American Finances and Firepower Restraint during the Vietnam War.” 2013. Thesis, Texas A&M University. Accessed December 14, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/151185.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Hawkins, John Michael. “The Limits of Fire Support: American Finances and Firepower Restraint during the Vietnam War.” 2013. Web. 14 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Hawkins JM. The Limits of Fire Support: American Finances and Firepower Restraint during the Vietnam War. [Internet] [Thesis]. Texas A&M University; 2013. [cited 2019 Dec 14]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/151185.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Hawkins JM. The Limits of Fire Support: American Finances and Firepower Restraint during the Vietnam War. [Thesis]. Texas A&M University; 2013. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/151185

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.