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You searched for subject:(US Local Government). Showing records 1 – 2 of 2 total matches.

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University of Oxford

1. Hackett, Ursula. Explaining inter-state variation in aid for children at private religious schools in the United States, up to 2012.

Degree: PhD, 2014, University of Oxford

This American Political Development research explains cross-state variation in aid for children at private religious schools in the United States up to the end of 2012. Using a mixed-methods approach I examine how the institutional orderings of Federalism, Constitution, Church and Party affect policymaker decisions to instigate and sustain programmes of aid. By ‘aid’ I mean education vouchers and tax credits, transportation, textbook loans, equipment, nursing and food services, and tax exemptions for private religious school property. I conduct Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis across all fifty states, supported by interview and archival research in six case-study states – California, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, New York and Utah – and by statistical treatment of the constitutional amendments known as ‘No-Aid Provisions’. All of the aid policies examined here are ‘submerged’ in Mettler’s terms, in that they help private organizations to take on state functions, re-frame such functions in terms of the marketplace, and are poorly understood by the public. In this thesis I extend Mettler’s conception of submergedness to explain when institutions matter, which institutions matter, and why they matter for religious school student aid. State decentralization is necessary for high levels of aid and a high proportion of Catholics is sufficient for high levels of aid. Republican control of the state offices is a necessary condition for the passage of tax credit or voucher scholarships but not for other types of aid. No-Aid Provisions are unrelated to aid. Of the four institutional explanatory conditions, Federalism and Church have the most important effects on aid for children at private religious schools. Party explains some types of aid but not all, and Constitution is surprisingly lacking in explanatory power.

Subjects/Keywords: 379.73; American politics; Political science; Local Government; Public policy; Religion and politics; US politics; Education

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Hackett, U. (2014). Explaining inter-state variation in aid for children at private religious schools in the United States, up to 2012. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Oxford. Retrieved from http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:140dbeed-db56-43d9-bf01-f2293734ac39 ; https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.596024

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Hackett, Ursula. “Explaining inter-state variation in aid for children at private religious schools in the United States, up to 2012.” 2014. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oxford. Accessed December 12, 2019. http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:140dbeed-db56-43d9-bf01-f2293734ac39 ; https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.596024.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Hackett, Ursula. “Explaining inter-state variation in aid for children at private religious schools in the United States, up to 2012.” 2014. Web. 12 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Hackett U. Explaining inter-state variation in aid for children at private religious schools in the United States, up to 2012. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Oxford; 2014. [cited 2019 Dec 12]. Available from: http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:140dbeed-db56-43d9-bf01-f2293734ac39 ; https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.596024.

Council of Science Editors:

Hackett U. Explaining inter-state variation in aid for children at private religious schools in the United States, up to 2012. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Oxford; 2014. Available from: http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:140dbeed-db56-43d9-bf01-f2293734ac39 ; https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.596024


University of California – Irvine

2. Kim, Yonsu. The Impact of Urban Governance on Health Disparities and Local Health Expenditure.

Degree: Planning, Policy, and Design, 2016, University of California – Irvine

ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONThe Impact of Political Fragmentation on Health Disparities and Local Health ExpenditureBy Yonsu KimDoctor of Philosophy in Planning, Policy, and DesignUniversity of California, Irvine, 2016Associate Professor Tim-Allen Bruckner, Chair During the 1970s and1980s in the U.S., population movement, urban sprawl and governance reform led to a proliferation of local, autonomous jurisdictions. Previous literature examines how this creation of local governments, referred to as political fragmentation, contributes to public spending and social inequality. I build on this literature by examining three potential consequences of political fragmentation: increased health disparities, reduced public investments in health, and reductions in public economic efficiency. I ground these lines of inquiry from diverse fields including political science, urban planning, and public health. In my first analytic chapter, I test the hypothesis that the mortality disparity between whites and African Americans varies positively with fragmentation. I retrieved mortality data from the multiple cause-of-death file and measured fragmentation among 226 U.S. counties (population size ≤ 200,000) over four distinct periods (1972-73, 1977-78, 1982-83, and 1987-88). Consistent with my hypothesis, I find a positive relation between political fragmentation and the African American / white difference in all-cause mortality.Next, to explore a pathway through which fragmentation may increase to health disparities, I examined whether fragmentation corresponds with a reduction in public health expenditures. Consistent with this proposition, I find that fragmentation varies negatively with per capita health expenditure (coef: -0.03, p<0.01), and health expenditure as a proportion of total expenditure (coef: -0.0084, P<0.001). In my last analytic chapter, I test the Leviathan hypothesis that fragmented local governments act inefficiently and lead to unexpected rises in overall local expenditures. Counter to this hypothesis, results indicate that general purpose government fragmentation constraints per capita expenditure (coef: =-0.953, p<0.001).Taken together, my results suggest that political fragmentation may exacerbate health inequalities by reducing the per capita public outlay for health spending among disadvantaged groups. However, my findings remain inconclusive regarding whether, and to what extent, political fragmentation promotes economic efficiency in public management of urban locales. I conclude with recommendations of future areas of research.

Subjects/Keywords: Public policy; Public health; Urban planning; Health Disparities; Health Expenditure; Leviathan Hypothesis; Political Fragmentation; Urban Governance; US Local Government

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Kim, Y. (2016). The Impact of Urban Governance on Health Disparities and Local Health Expenditure. (Thesis). University of California – Irvine. Retrieved from http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/0gq701fd

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Kim, Yonsu. “The Impact of Urban Governance on Health Disparities and Local Health Expenditure.” 2016. Thesis, University of California – Irvine. Accessed December 12, 2019. http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/0gq701fd.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Kim, Yonsu. “The Impact of Urban Governance on Health Disparities and Local Health Expenditure.” 2016. Web. 12 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Kim Y. The Impact of Urban Governance on Health Disparities and Local Health Expenditure. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of California – Irvine; 2016. [cited 2019 Dec 12]. Available from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/0gq701fd.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Kim Y. The Impact of Urban Governance on Health Disparities and Local Health Expenditure. [Thesis]. University of California – Irvine; 2016. Available from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/0gq701fd

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.