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Lincoln University

1. Cairns, Jessica. Potential anthelmintic properties of nitrogenous fertilisers.

Degree: 2016, Lincoln University

This dissertation describes a series of experiments designed to understand the potential anthelmintic properties of nitrogenous fertilisers for control of gastrointestinal parasites. Anthelmintic administration is no longer considered the sole method for control of gastrointestinal parasites. Due to the increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance, alternative methods of parasite control are required. Nitrogenous fertilisers produce a number of potentially toxic compounds during their conversion to plant available forms, and there are some reports they may have anthelmintic properties, although there is a paucity of specific evidence. Therefore, this series of experiments investigated the effects of nitrogen-containing fertilisers on Trichostrongylus colubriformis eggs hatching and larval development. Experiment one (Chapter 3) consisted of topical application of either water or urea (Flow-Fert N, 20% concentration) onto 100g of faeces. The total number of larvae collected per 100g of faeces was 25,600 and 800 for water and urea respectively, a 97% reduction in larvae following treatment with urea. Visual assessment of the faeces showed a white fungus growing on the faeces sprayed with water that was not present on the faeces sprayed with urea. The second experiment (Chapter 4) involved immersing T. colubriformis eggs in pH solutions ranging in whole number increments from 4 to 11, and in solutions of 20% urea (pH of 8). pH had a significant effect on egg hatching at pH less than 6 (P<0.001), whilst above pH 6 there was no effect on egg hatching. Urea solutions suppressed 90%+ of the eggs from hatching indicating that the effect on egg hatching was independent of pH. Experiment three (Chapter 5) determined the optimum concentration of urea required to inhibit eggs from hatching. T. colubriformis eggs were immersed in solutions of urea at various concentrations (1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 20%, 50%). There was a significant effect of urea concentration on egg hatching with hatching decreasing as urea concentrations increased with less than 10% of eggs hatching in concentrations greater than 10%. Optimum concentrations estimated using an LD90 and ROC analysis were determined to be 19.6% and 5.5%, respectively. The fourth experiment (Chapter 6) compared five nitrogen-containing fertilisers: urea (46-0-0-0), sulphate of ammonia (21-0-0-24), potato fertiliser (15-10-10-8), potassium nitrate (13-0-44-0) and nitrophoska blue (12-5.2-14-0) at various concentrations (1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 50%) and their effects on eggs hatching. There was a fertiliser type X concentration interaction with all fertilisers, at concentrations greater than 10% inhibiting eggs from hatching to less than 6% (P<0.001). At a concentration of 1%, sulphate of ammonia and potassium nitrate had the strongest effect on eggs hatched, viz 24% and 48%, respectively, in comparison with 90% in the control. Regression analysis credited the variation in percentage of eggs hatched could be explained by both nitrogen percentage and electrical conductivity,… Advisors/Committee Members: Greer, Andrew.

Subjects/Keywords: pH; nitrogen; fertiliser; gastrointestinal nematodes; Trichostrongyles colubriformis; egg hatching; anthelmintic properties; nitrogen fertiliser

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APA (6th Edition):

Cairns, J. (2016). Potential anthelmintic properties of nitrogenous fertilisers. (Thesis). Lincoln University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10182/7758

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Cairns, Jessica. “Potential anthelmintic properties of nitrogenous fertilisers.” 2016. Thesis, Lincoln University. Accessed April 26, 2018. http://hdl.handle.net/10182/7758.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Cairns, Jessica. “Potential anthelmintic properties of nitrogenous fertilisers.” 2016. Web. 26 Apr 2018.

Vancouver:

Cairns J. Potential anthelmintic properties of nitrogenous fertilisers. [Internet] [Thesis]. Lincoln University; 2016. [cited 2018 Apr 26]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10182/7758.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Cairns J. Potential anthelmintic properties of nitrogenous fertilisers. [Thesis]. Lincoln University; 2016. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10182/7758

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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