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1. Boscolo, Marco. Optimization of inversion ankle taping: A Taguchi method based study.

Degree: PhD, 0351, 2013, University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign

Optimization of a complex process or system is often a task utilized in industrial engineering where specialized Designs of Experiments (DOEs) are used. Optimization for the purpose of finding the ideal condition of a product or process is a novel concept in kinesiology. In kinesiology research comparing 3 or more multi-level independent variables (IVs) is rarely conducted. In optimization DOE studies, each IV is a multi-level independent variable and all combinations of these variables are studied simultaneously with a factorial DOE approach or method. One such method is the Taguchi Method (TM), which is a robust industrial engineering optimization DOE method developed by Dr. Genichi Taguchi in post WWII Japan. The TM was created for the purpose of developing a product or process in a cost effective and efficient manner. To conserve resources the TM relies on fractional factorial orthogonal arrays, which require half or less of all possible linear combinations (LC). The TM works best when the materials under study behave uniformly. When the material behaves uniformly only a few replications of a LC are needed. In optimization studies with humans, humans are the material, and often humans behave non-uniformly which requires many repeat observations of LCs to achieve stable results. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of the TM in a kinesiology and athletic training application using humans along with determining what sample size produces consistent results in a TM study. For this study, the reduction in ankle inversion motion was studied by manipulating ankle taping variables relating to how thick the tape was applied, how high up the lower leg tape was applied, and how thick the prewrap was applied. Each independent variable (IV) was studied at two levels using the same ankle taping pattern. A TM orthogonal linear array four (L4) and a full factorial array were compared to see how close the two arrays optimal results were in value. For score stability progressively smaller sample sizes were analyzed. Video and inclinometery based motion analyses were used to measure the amount of ankle inversion motion, and the amount of plantar flexion. In addition, the weight of each participant’s ankle taping for each LC was measured for cost comparison. No TM based environmental variables where used in this study. Repeated measures statistical analysis was used which involved each participant being tested in each of the taping LCs, a no tape condition, and a durable ankle brace condition. The participants had no history of ankle injury in the past 12 months. The results of this study showed the TM identifying the same optimal LC parameters as the full factorial approach. The results also showed that the TM’s estimated optimal condition value was consistent with the optimal value found with the full factorial approach. To achieve statically significant results a sample size of n = 34 was needed in this study, but if the main emphasis of the researcher was in identifying meaningful difference between LC for… Advisors/Committee Members: Zhu, Weimo (advisor), Zhu, Weimo (Committee Chair), Iwamoto, Gary (committee member), Sosnoff, Jacob J. (committee member), Broglio, Steven P. (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Taguchi Method; Design of Experiment; Human Performance Optimization; Cost Saving; Fractional Factorial; Full Factorial; Quality; Optimize; Dose Response; Robustness; Ankle Taping

…52 Application of the Taguchi Method… …93 Taguchi Method Procedures… …98 Taguchi Method Analysis: Degrees per Second… …98 Taguchi Method Analysis: Plantar Flexion… …105 Taguchi Method Analysis: Angle Tape Weight… 

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APA (6th Edition):

Boscolo, M. (2013). Optimization of inversion ankle taping: A Taguchi method based study. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved from

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Boscolo, Marco. “Optimization of inversion ankle taping: A Taguchi method based study.” 2013. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign. Accessed April 11, 2021.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Boscolo, Marco. “Optimization of inversion ankle taping: A Taguchi method based study.” 2013. Web. 11 Apr 2021.


Boscolo M. Optimization of inversion ankle taping: A Taguchi method based study. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign; 2013. [cited 2021 Apr 11]. Available from:

Council of Science Editors:

Boscolo M. Optimization of inversion ankle taping: A Taguchi method based study. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign; 2013. Available from: