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You searched for subject:(TMRCA). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Duquesne University

1. Das, Ranajit. Molecular Evolution of Hominoid Primates: Phylogeny and Regulation.

Degree: PhD, Biological Sciences, 2014, Duquesne University

The complete mtDNA of one eastern gorilla was sequenced to provide the most accurate date for the mitochondrial divergence of gorillas. The most recent common ancestor of eastern lowland and western lowland gorillas existed about 1.9 million years ago, slightly more recent than that of chimpanzee and bonobo. This study also depicts that the eastern and western gorillas show species level genetic divergence. Hominoid mating systems differ tremendously. The level of sperm competition varies according to the mating system, which presumably imposes unique selective pressures on the seminal proteins of each species. Cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) was identified in our lab as the protein with the largest difference in abundance between human and chimpanzee, being found at 142-fold higher in chimpanzee. The coding region of CRTAC1 is extremely conserved with signature of strong purifying selection. Paradoxically, CRTAC1 `promoter' from human drives transcription significantly greater than chimpanzee, with or without androgen stimulation. Analyzing H3K27Ac data, a ~2.2kb region was identified as a possible additional cis-regulatory element. The cis-regulatory region behaved like a silencer and aided in strong transcriptional repression in humans. Although its underlying basis remains elusive, it can be speculated that the differential expression of CRTAC1 between human and chimpanzee seminal plasma results from tissue specific over/under expression of this gene. The unique gains and losses of miRNAs within hominoids have remained understudied. The overall goal of this project was to identify the uniquely gained and lost miRNAs and their targets within hominoids. I found 14 miRNAs uniquely gained in humans. Maximum uniquely gained and lost miRNAs were found to be brain specific. The targets of uniquely gained miRNAs in human are also associated with brain-associated functions. Older miRNAs were found to be more conserved compared to the newer miRNAs gained <15 Mya. Advisors/Committee Members: Michael I Jensen-Seaman, Brady Porter, David Lampe, Nathan Clark.

Subjects/Keywords: Eastern Lowland Gorilla; In vitro Luciferase Assay; Promoter-Silencer Interaction; Seminal plasma proteins; TMRCA; Unique hominoid miRNAs

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APA (6th Edition):

Das, R. (2014). Molecular Evolution of Hominoid Primates: Phylogeny and Regulation. (Doctoral Dissertation). Duquesne University. Retrieved from https://dsc.duq.edu/etd/461

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Das, Ranajit. “Molecular Evolution of Hominoid Primates: Phylogeny and Regulation.” 2014. Doctoral Dissertation, Duquesne University. Accessed October 28, 2020. https://dsc.duq.edu/etd/461.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Das, Ranajit. “Molecular Evolution of Hominoid Primates: Phylogeny and Regulation.” 2014. Web. 28 Oct 2020.

Vancouver:

Das R. Molecular Evolution of Hominoid Primates: Phylogeny and Regulation. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Duquesne University; 2014. [cited 2020 Oct 28]. Available from: https://dsc.duq.edu/etd/461.

Council of Science Editors:

Das R. Molecular Evolution of Hominoid Primates: Phylogeny and Regulation. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Duquesne University; 2014. Available from: https://dsc.duq.edu/etd/461

2. Bertranpetit, Emilie. Sur l'origine de Toxoplasma Gondii : approches phylogénétique et spatialement-explicite pour la détermination de l'origine géographique d'un parasite ubiquiste : On the origin of Toxoplasma gondii : phylogenetic and spatially explicit approaches for the identification of the geographical origin of an ubiquitous parasite.

Degree: Docteur es, Parasitologie, 2016, Limoges

Toxoplasma gondii, protozoaire ubiquitaire chez les mammifères et les oiseaux, est l’agent étiologique de la toxoplasmose, une maladie posant un réel problème de santé publique dans le monde avec environ 200 000 nouveaux cas de toxoplasmose congénitale chaque année. Il a été montré que la sévérité clinique de la toxoplasmose variait en fonction des régions géographiques, avec en particulier l’Amérique du Sud qui paie le plus lourd tribu de cette maladie. Malheureusement, les mécanismes de ces disparités géographiques sont encore peu compris et l’origine géographique ainsi que l'histoire évolutive du pathogène sont encore incertaines. Une collection mondiale de 168 isolats de T. gondii recueillis dans 13 populations de 5 continents a été séquencée pour cinq fragments de gènes (140 single nucleotide polymorphisms à partir de 3153 bp par isolat). La phylogénie basée sur les méthodes de Maximum de vraisemblance avec une estimation de l’âge du plus récent ancêtre commun (TMRCA) et des analyses géostatistiques ont été réalisées afin d’inférer l’origine hypothétique de T. gondii. Nous montrons que les souches actuelles de ce parasite ont vraisemblablement évolué à partir d’un ancêtre Sud-Américain il y a environ 1,5 million d’années et avons reconstruit la propagation mondiale du pathogène qui a suivi. Cette émergence est beaucoup plus récente que l’apparition de la forme ancestrale de T. gondii il y a environ 11 Ma et est postérieure à l’arrivée des félidés dans cette partie du monde. Nous proposons que la lignée ancestrale de T. gondii ait été introduite en Amérique du Sud avec les félidés et que l’évolution de l’infectivité orale des kystes tissulaires à travers le carnivorisme ainsi que la diversification des félidés dans cette région du monde a permis l'apparition d'une nouvelle souche ayant une capacité de transmission beaucoup plus efficace que la lignée ancestrale, ce qui lui a permis de la supplanter et d’avoir une distribution pandémique.

Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan found ubiquitously in mammals and birds, is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a disease causing substantial Public Health burden worldwide, including about 200,000 new cases of congenital toxoplasmosis each year. Clinical severity has been shown to vary across geographical regions with South America exhibiting the highest burden. Unfortunately, the drivers of these heterogeneities are still poorly understood, and the geographical origin and historical spread of the pathogen worldwide are currently uncertain. A worldwide sample of 168 T. gondii isolates gathered in 13 populations was sequenced for five fragments of genes (140 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 3,153 bp per isolate). Phylogeny based on Maximum likelihood methods with estimation of the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) and geostatistical analyses were performed for inferring the putative origin of T. gondii. We show that extant strains of the pathogen likely evolved from a South American ancestor, around 1.5 million years ago, and reconstruct the subsequent…

Advisors/Committee Members: Ajzenberg, Daniel (thesis director), Devillard, Sébastien (thesis director).

Subjects/Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; Diversité génétique; Date du plus récent ancêtre commun; Phylogénie; Phylogéographie; Toxoplasma gondii; Genetic diversity; Time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA); Phylogeny; Phylogeography; 610

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Bertranpetit, E. (2016). Sur l'origine de Toxoplasma Gondii : approches phylogénétique et spatialement-explicite pour la détermination de l'origine géographique d'un parasite ubiquiste : On the origin of Toxoplasma gondii : phylogenetic and spatially explicit approaches for the identification of the geographical origin of an ubiquitous parasite. (Doctoral Dissertation). Limoges. Retrieved from http://www.theses.fr/2016LIMO0092

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Bertranpetit, Emilie. “Sur l'origine de Toxoplasma Gondii : approches phylogénétique et spatialement-explicite pour la détermination de l'origine géographique d'un parasite ubiquiste : On the origin of Toxoplasma gondii : phylogenetic and spatially explicit approaches for the identification of the geographical origin of an ubiquitous parasite.” 2016. Doctoral Dissertation, Limoges. Accessed October 28, 2020. http://www.theses.fr/2016LIMO0092.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Bertranpetit, Emilie. “Sur l'origine de Toxoplasma Gondii : approches phylogénétique et spatialement-explicite pour la détermination de l'origine géographique d'un parasite ubiquiste : On the origin of Toxoplasma gondii : phylogenetic and spatially explicit approaches for the identification of the geographical origin of an ubiquitous parasite.” 2016. Web. 28 Oct 2020.

Vancouver:

Bertranpetit E. Sur l'origine de Toxoplasma Gondii : approches phylogénétique et spatialement-explicite pour la détermination de l'origine géographique d'un parasite ubiquiste : On the origin of Toxoplasma gondii : phylogenetic and spatially explicit approaches for the identification of the geographical origin of an ubiquitous parasite. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Limoges; 2016. [cited 2020 Oct 28]. Available from: http://www.theses.fr/2016LIMO0092.

Council of Science Editors:

Bertranpetit E. Sur l'origine de Toxoplasma Gondii : approches phylogénétique et spatialement-explicite pour la détermination de l'origine géographique d'un parasite ubiquiste : On the origin of Toxoplasma gondii : phylogenetic and spatially explicit approaches for the identification of the geographical origin of an ubiquitous parasite. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Limoges; 2016. Available from: http://www.theses.fr/2016LIMO0092

3. Solé Morata, Neus, 1988-. Inferring recent human population history from a Y chromosome perspective.

Degree: Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut, 2017, Universitat Pompeu Fabra

El comportament únic del cromosoma Y, heretat per via paterna sense patir recombinació amb cap altre cromosoma, el converteix en un marcador excepcional amb aplicacions en àmbits com la genètica de poblacions humanes, la genealogia o la genètica forense. Tot i el progrés en l’estudi del cromosoma Y realitzat en les últimes dues dècades, el recent desenvolupament de les tecnologies de seqüenciació massiva ha permès el descobriment de milers de noves variants, mitjançant les quals s’ha obtingut una millor reconstrucció filogenètica, així com una estimació directa de la seva taxa de mutació. En aquesta tesi s’analitza la diversitat del cromosoma Y des de dues perspectives diferents i amb els següents propòsits. En primer lloc, mitjançant el genotipat de marcadors específics del cromosoma Y en ~2500 homes portadors d’un dels 50 cognoms catalans escollits, s’han investigat els processos que han donat lloc a l’origen, la sistematització i la difusió dels cognoms. Per altra banda, la seqüenciació de cromosomes Y en homes nord africans pertanyents al llinatge més freqüent en aquesta àrea (E-M183), ha permès un refinament de l’estructura filogeogràfica d’aquest llinatge, així com l’establiment temporal del seu origen i dispersió. Advisors/Committee Members: [email protected] (authoremail), true (authoremailshow), Calafell i Majó, Francesc (director), Comas i Vila, David (director), true (authorsendemail).

Subjects/Keywords: Y-chromosome; Population genetics; STR; SNP; Surnames; North Africa; Evolution; TMRCA; 575

…PPPG: per position per generation T: Thymine TMRCA: Time to the most recent common ancestor… …ancestor (TMRCA) of a group of related Y chromosomes (11) (section 2.3.4… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Solé Morata, Neus, 1. (2017). Inferring recent human population history from a Y chromosome perspective. (Thesis). Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10803/543846

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Solé Morata, Neus, 1988-. “Inferring recent human population history from a Y chromosome perspective.” 2017. Thesis, Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Accessed October 28, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10803/543846.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Solé Morata, Neus, 1988-. “Inferring recent human population history from a Y chromosome perspective.” 2017. Web. 28 Oct 2020.

Vancouver:

Solé Morata, Neus 1. Inferring recent human population history from a Y chromosome perspective. [Internet] [Thesis]. Universitat Pompeu Fabra; 2017. [cited 2020 Oct 28]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10803/543846.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Solé Morata, Neus 1. Inferring recent human population history from a Y chromosome perspective. [Thesis]. Universitat Pompeu Fabra; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10803/543846

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.