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Kent State University

1. Chapman, Eric George. Bayesian Phylogenetics of Snail-Killing Flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) and Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): Implications of Parallel Evolution, Feeding Group Structure and Molecular Evolution.

Degree: PhD, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Biological Sciences, 2008, Kent State University

This dissertation utilizes maximum likelihood optimization of morphological and molecular characters onto molecular phylogenies of snail-kiling flies and freshwater mussels to study character evolution. The larvae of snail-killing flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) display a wide range of feeding behaviors, being predators, parasitoids, or saprophages of a wide variety of gastropod mollusks. The genus Tetanocera is particularly interesting because its species occupy five distinct larval feeding behavioral groups with each species’ larvae living in one of two general habitat types (aquatic or terrestrial). Maximum likelihood analyses of character state transformations showed significant correlations between habitat transitions and changes in four larval morphological characteristics. Evidence is provided that phylogenetic niche conservatism was responsible for the maintenance of aquatic-associated larval morphological character states, and concerted convergence and/or gene linkage was responsible for parallel morphological changes that were derived in conjunction with habitat transitions. Maximum likelihood optimization of larval feeding behavioral groups estimated that the ancestor to Tetanocera was an aquatic predator of non-operculate pulmonate snails, and that Tetanocera lineages made at least eight feeding group transitions during their phylogenesis. As a consequence, Tetanocera lineages transitioned from aquatic to terrestrial habitats at least six times independently. Freshwater unionoidean bivalves have distinct maternal (F) and paternal (M) mtDNA genomes. Male unionoidean bivalves have a ~550bp 3' coding extension to the cox2 gene (Mcox2e) that is apparently absent from all other metazoans. Molecular sequence analyses indicate that this region is unique to unionoidean bivalves, is functional and likely the result of a single >65 MY old insertion event, has relatively high rates of evolution in its primary and secondary structures including variability in transmembrane helix (TMH) number, shows instances of site-specific positive selection, shows an overall pattern of purifying selection that leads to the preservation of the TMH and hydrophilic C-terminus tail sub-regions with variation in pedicted TMH number stemming from substitution-based processes, and has a more conserved C-terminus tail that is likely biologically active because it contains functional motifs. These results provide supporting evidence that MCOX2e has a novel reproductive function within unionoidean bivalves and indicate that unionoidean bivalve MCOX2 is a chimeric animal mtDNA-encoded protein. Advisors/Committee Members: Hoeh, Walter R. (Committee Chair).

Subjects/Keywords: Biology; Snail-kiling flies; Diptera; Sciomyzidae; freshwater mussels; feeding behavior evolution; Unionidae; Ambleminae; systematics; Bayesian phylogenetics; maximum likelihood; character optimization; DUI; diversifying selection

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APA (6th Edition):

Chapman, E. G. (2008). Bayesian Phylogenetics of Snail-Killing Flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) and Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): Implications of Parallel Evolution, Feeding Group Structure and Molecular Evolution. (Doctoral Dissertation). Kent State University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1227708688

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Chapman, Eric George. “Bayesian Phylogenetics of Snail-Killing Flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) and Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): Implications of Parallel Evolution, Feeding Group Structure and Molecular Evolution.” 2008. Doctoral Dissertation, Kent State University. Accessed November 11, 2019. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1227708688.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Chapman, Eric George. “Bayesian Phylogenetics of Snail-Killing Flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) and Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): Implications of Parallel Evolution, Feeding Group Structure and Molecular Evolution.” 2008. Web. 11 Nov 2019.

Vancouver:

Chapman EG. Bayesian Phylogenetics of Snail-Killing Flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) and Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): Implications of Parallel Evolution, Feeding Group Structure and Molecular Evolution. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Kent State University; 2008. [cited 2019 Nov 11]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1227708688.

Council of Science Editors:

Chapman EG. Bayesian Phylogenetics of Snail-Killing Flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) and Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): Implications of Parallel Evolution, Feeding Group Structure and Molecular Evolution. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Kent State University; 2008. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1227708688

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