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You searched for subject:(Semantic universals). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of California – Berkeley

1. Carstensen, Alexandra. Universals and variation in language and thought: Concepts, communication, and semantic structure.

Degree: Psychology, 2016, University of California – Berkeley

Why do languages parcel human experience into categories in the ways they do, and to what extent do these categories in language shape our view of the world? Both language and nonlinguistic cognition vary across cultures, but not arbitrarily, suggesting that there may be universal constraints on how we talk and think. This dissertation explores the sources and consequences of universals and variation in language and thought in four parts.The first study examines a major premise of the universalist view of cognition, that speakers of all languages share a universal conceptual space, which is partitioned by the categories in language. Previous research on color cognition supports this view; when English speakers successively pile-sort colors, their sorting recapitulates an independently proposed hierarchy of color semantics across languages (Boster, 1986). Here I extend that finding to the domain of spatial relations. Levinson et al. (2003) have proposed a hierarchy of spatial category differentiation, and I show that English speakers successively pile-sort spatial scenes in a manner that recapitulates that semantic hierarchy. This finding provides evidence for a specific hierarchy of spatial notions as a model of universals in conceptual structure, and suggests that universal patterns observed across languages reflect general cognitive forces that are available in the minds of speakers of a single language.The second project of this dissertation demonstrates a process by which domain-specific conceptual universals and more general communicative pressures may shape categories in language, extending a previous account (Regier et al., 2015) of semantic universals and variation. In particular, I show that human simulation of cultural transmission in the lab produces systems of semantic categories that converge toward greater informativeness, in the domains of color and spatial relations. These findings suggest that larger-scale cultural transmission over historical time could have produced the diverse yet informative category systems found in the world’s languages. This work supports the communicative efficiency account of semantic universals and variation and establishes a process through which categories in language become increasingly efficient and increasingly universal. The third study extends the previous account of categories in language to cognition more broadly, showing that the same principles that govern efficient semantic systems also characterize nonlinguistic cognition. I provide an account of spatial cognition in which conceptual categories optimize the trade-off between informativeness (making for fine-grained and intuitively organized spatial categories) and simplicity (limiting the number of categories). I find that pile sorts made by speakers of diverse languages match this universal account more closely than they match the semantics of the sorter’s native language. These results suggest that across languages, spatial cognition reflects universal pressures for efficient categorization, and observed…

Subjects/Keywords: Cognitive psychology; Linguistics; Language and thought; Language evolution; Linguistic relativity; Semantic universals; Spatial cognition

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Carstensen, A. (2016). Universals and variation in language and thought: Concepts, communication, and semantic structure. (Thesis). University of California – Berkeley. Retrieved from http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/1h04c13q

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Carstensen, Alexandra. “Universals and variation in language and thought: Concepts, communication, and semantic structure.” 2016. Thesis, University of California – Berkeley. Accessed December 06, 2019. http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/1h04c13q.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Carstensen, Alexandra. “Universals and variation in language and thought: Concepts, communication, and semantic structure.” 2016. Web. 06 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Carstensen A. Universals and variation in language and thought: Concepts, communication, and semantic structure. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of California – Berkeley; 2016. [cited 2019 Dec 06]. Available from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/1h04c13q.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Carstensen A. Universals and variation in language and thought: Concepts, communication, and semantic structure. [Thesis]. University of California – Berkeley; 2016. Available from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/1h04c13q

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

2. Andersson, Karin. 'Consider' and its Swedish equivalents in relation to machine translation.

Degree: Humanities and Informatics, 2007, University of Skövde

This study describes the English verb ’consider’ and the characteristics of some of its senses. An investigation of this kind may be useful, since a machine translation program, SYSTRAN, has invariably translated ’consider’ with the Swedish verbs ’betrakta’ (Eng: ’view’, regard’) and ’anse’ (Eng: ’regard’). This handling of ’consider’ is not satisfactory in all contexts. Since ’consider’ is a cogitative verb, it is fascinating to observe that both the theory of semantic primes and universals and conceptual semantics are concerned with cogitation in various ways. Anna Wierzbicka, who is one of the advocates of semantic primes and universals, argues that THINK should be considered as a semantic prime. Moreover, one of the prime issues of conceptual semantics is to describe how thoughts are constructed by virtue of e.g. linguistic components, perception and experience. In order to define and clarify the distinctions between the different senses, we have taken advantage of the theory of mental spaces. This thesis has been structured in accordance with the meanings that have been indicated in WordNet as to ’consider’. As a consequence, the senses that ’consider’ represents have been organized to form the subsequent groups: ’Observation’, ’Opinion’ together with its sub-group ’Likelihood’ and ’Cogitation’ followed by its sub-group ’Attention/Consideration’. A concordance tool, http://www.nla.se/culler, provided us with 90 literary quotations that were collected in a corpus. Afterwards, these citations were distributed between the groups mentioned above and translated into Swedish by SYSTRAN. Furthermore, the meanings as to ’consider’ have also been related to the senses, recorded by the FrameNet scholars. Here, ’consider’ is regarded as a verb of ’Cogitation’ and ’Categorization’. When this study was accomplished, it could be inferred that certain senses are connected to specific syntactic constructions. In other cases, however, the distinctions between various meanings can only be explained by virtue of semantics. To conclude, it appears to be likely that an implementation is facilitated if a specific syntactic construction can be tied to a particular sense. This may be the case concerning some meanings of ’consider’. Machine translation is presumably a much more laborious task, if one is solely governed by semantic conditions.

Subjects/Keywords: ’consider’; semantic primes and universals; conceptual semantics; mental spaces; WordNet; FrameNet; machine translation; Language Technology (Computational Linguistics); Språkteknologi (språkvetenskaplig databehandling)

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Andersson, K. (2007). 'Consider' and its Swedish equivalents in relation to machine translation. (Thesis). University of Skövde. Retrieved from http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:his:diva-771

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Andersson, Karin. “'Consider' and its Swedish equivalents in relation to machine translation.” 2007. Thesis, University of Skövde. Accessed December 06, 2019. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:his:diva-771.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Andersson, Karin. “'Consider' and its Swedish equivalents in relation to machine translation.” 2007. Web. 06 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Andersson K. 'Consider' and its Swedish equivalents in relation to machine translation. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Skövde; 2007. [cited 2019 Dec 06]. Available from: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:his:diva-771.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Andersson K. 'Consider' and its Swedish equivalents in relation to machine translation. [Thesis]. University of Skövde; 2007. Available from: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:his:diva-771

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


University of Otago

3. Laws, Mark R. Māori language integration in the age of information technology: A computational approach .

Degree: 2011, University of Otago

A multidisciplinary approach that involves language universals, linguistic discourse analysis and computer information technology are combined to support the descriptive nature of this research dissertation. Utilising comparative methods to determine rudimentary language structures which reflect both the scientific and historic parameters that are embedded in all languages. From a hypothesis to the proof of concept, a multitude of computer applications have been used to test these language models, templates and frameworks. To encapsulate this entire approach, it is best described as “designing then building the theoretical, experimental, and practical projects that form the structural network of the Mäori language system”. The focus on methods for integrating the language is to investigate shared characteristics between Mäori and New Zealand English. This has provided a complete methodology for a bilingual based system. A system with text and speech for language generation and classification. This approach has looked at existing computational linguistic and information processing techniques for the analysis of each language’s phenomena; where data from basic units to higher-order linguistic knowledge has been analysed in terms of their characteristics for similar and/or dissimilar features. The notion that some language units can have similar acoustic sounds, structures or even meanings in other languages is plausible. How these are identified was the key concept to building an integrated language system. This research has permitted further examination into developing a new series of phonological and lexical self organising maps of Mäori. Using phoneme and word maps spatially organised around lower to higher order concepts such as ‘sounds like’. To facilitate the high demands placed on very large data stores, the further development of the speech database management system containing phonological, phonetic, lexical, semantic, and other language frameworks was also developed. This database has helped to examine how effectively Mäori has been fully integrated into an existing English framework. The bilingual system will allow full interaction with a computer-based speech architecture. This will contribute to the existing knowledge being constructed by the many different disciplines associated with languages; naturally or artificially derived. Evolving connectionist systems are new tools that are trained in an unsupervised manner to be both adaptable and flexible. This hybrid approach is an improvement on past methods in the development of more effective and efficient ways for solving applied problems for speech data analysis, classification, rule extraction, information retrieval and knowledge acquisition. A preliminary study will apply bilingual data to an ‘evolving clustering method’ algorithm that returns a structure containing acoustic clusters plotted using visualisation techniques. In the true practical sense, the complete bilingual system has had a bidirectional approach. Both languages have undergone similar…

Subjects/Keywords: language universals; linguistic discourse analysis; Māori; linguistic; speech database management system; phonological; phonetic; lexical; semantic; language modelling; data access; text and speech processing; human-computer network interface interaction.; computer information technology; New Zealand English; data analysis

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Laws, M. R. (2011). Māori language integration in the age of information technology: A computational approach . (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Otago. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1479

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Laws, Mark R. “Māori language integration in the age of information technology: A computational approach .” 2011. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Otago. Accessed December 06, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1479.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Laws, Mark R. “Māori language integration in the age of information technology: A computational approach .” 2011. Web. 06 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Laws MR. Māori language integration in the age of information technology: A computational approach . [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Otago; 2011. [cited 2019 Dec 06]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1479.

Council of Science Editors:

Laws MR. Māori language integration in the age of information technology: A computational approach . [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Otago; 2011. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10523/1479

.