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1. 山田, 晃嗣. Macroecological patterns of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis transmission across the health areas of Panamá (1980–2012) : パナマ共和国の保健行政区域におけるアメリカ皮膚リーシュマニア症のマクロ生態学的伝播様式(1980−2012).

Degree: 博士(医学), 2017, Nagasaki University / 長崎大学

American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) is a neglected vector-borne zoonosis that persists despite increasing socio-economic development and urbanization in Panamá. Here, we investigate the association between environmental changes and spatio-temporal ACL transmission in the Republic of Panamá (1980–2012). We employ a macroecological approach, where patterns of variation in ACL incidence at the spatially coarse-grained scale of health areas are studied considering factors linked to the ecology of ACL transmission. We specifically study impacts of climatic variability, measured by the different phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), within diverse ecosystems and sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vector species, as well as heterogeneous local climatic patterns, deforestation, population growth rates, and changes in social marginalization. We found that over the study period, patterns of ACL incidence: (i) were asynchronous with clusters changing from east to west of the Panamá Canal, (ii) trends increased in the west, and decreased or remained nearly constant in the east, independent of human population growth, (iii) generally increased in years following El Niño, and (iv) decreased as forest cover increased. We found no significant association between changes in socio-economic indicators and ACL transmission. Regarding vector abundance and presence, we found that studies had been biased to locations east of the Panamá canal, and that, in general, the abundance of dominant vector species decreased during the cold phase of ENSO. Finally, our results indicate that a macroecological approach is useful to understand heterogeneities related to environmental change impacts on ACL transmission.

Subjects/Keywords: El Niño; Reservoirs; Deforestation; Marginalization; Sand fly vectors

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APA (6th Edition):

山田, . (2017). Macroecological patterns of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis transmission across the health areas of Panamá (1980–2012) : パナマ共和国の保健行政区域におけるアメリカ皮膚リーシュマニア症のマクロ生態学的伝播様式(1980−2012). (Thesis). Nagasaki University / 長崎大学. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10069/37892

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

山田, 晃嗣. “Macroecological patterns of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis transmission across the health areas of Panamá (1980–2012) : パナマ共和国の保健行政区域におけるアメリカ皮膚リーシュマニア症のマクロ生態学的伝播様式(1980−2012).” 2017. Thesis, Nagasaki University / 長崎大学. Accessed August 05, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10069/37892.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

山田, 晃嗣. “Macroecological patterns of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis transmission across the health areas of Panamá (1980–2012) : パナマ共和国の保健行政区域におけるアメリカ皮膚リーシュマニア症のマクロ生態学的伝播様式(1980−2012).” 2017. Web. 05 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

山田 . Macroecological patterns of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis transmission across the health areas of Panamá (1980–2012) : パナマ共和国の保健行政区域におけるアメリカ皮膚リーシュマニア症のマクロ生態学的伝播様式(1980−2012). [Internet] [Thesis]. Nagasaki University / 長崎大学; 2017. [cited 2020 Aug 05]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10069/37892.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

山田 . Macroecological patterns of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis transmission across the health areas of Panamá (1980–2012) : パナマ共和国の保健行政区域におけるアメリカ皮膚リーシュマニア症のマクロ生態学的伝播様式(1980−2012). [Thesis]. Nagasaki University / 長崎大学; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10069/37892

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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