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University of Notre Dame

1. Anthony E Clemons. Conserved Developmental Cues of Aedes aegypti and their Impact on the Mosquito Vector</h1>.

Degree: PhD, Biological Sciences, 2014, University of Notre Dame

Gene expression during embryogenesis impacts adult mosquito fitness, the ability of an organism to survive and transmit its genotype to offspring as compared to competing organisms. Sequencing of the Ae. aegypti genome has made possible the characterization of many genes, but analysis of developmental genes has proven challenging, largely as a result of technical difficulties encountered when manipulating mosquito embryos. First, techniques that focused on handling/manipulation of embryos and various analytics were designed (Chapter 2). With these techniques I was able to properly rear, fix, stain and perform functional analyses on embryos. Even with these techniques, genes important to organismal development remained fairly uncharacterized. Second, we used comparative genomics to study genes in Ae. aegypti that are found to be homologous to developmental genes in Drosophila melanogaster, a genetic model organism. Doing so I was able to show that Netrin/Frazzled signaling at the CNS midline was conserved (Chapter 3) between the mosquito and fruit fly. I showed via RNAi, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization that frazzled (fra) expression is important for proper axon guidance. In D. melanogaster axon guidance genes are known to control salivary gland migration during development. Salivary glands are critical to disease transmission in mosquitoes. Although there was a level of gene conservation shown in CNS development, development of the salivary glands is different (Chapter 4). Lastly, there are populations of Ae. aegypti, that show differences in susceptibilities to pathogens. The noticeable physiological difference between the two is body size. Body size in all organisms is controlled by Insulin Signaling (IIS). Developmental stressors are shown to decrease overall body size, but increase longevity and pathogen resistance. Stress during development modulates IIS. Stress Signaling is activated by c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase (Jnk) and regulated by Puckered (Puc) phosphatase. I found the smaller less susceptible Moyo-R subpopulation expresses higher levels of jnk at all stages of development when compared to the larger more susceptible Moyo-S subpopulation (Chapter 5). In future studies, we intend to show RNAi of puc in Moyo-S will lead to smaller and less susceptible mosquitoes. Advisors/Committee Members: David W Severson, Committee Co-Chair, Michael Ferdig, Committee Member, Molly Duman-Scheel, Committee Co-Chair, John Duman, Committee Member, Frank Collins, Committee Member.

Subjects/Keywords: Aeded aegypti; Puckered; C-Jun N-terminal Kinase; insulin signaling pathway; stress signaling pathway

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Clemons, A. E. (2014). Conserved Developmental Cues of Aedes aegypti and their Impact on the Mosquito Vector</h1>. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Notre Dame. Retrieved from https://curate.nd.edu/show/w089280462m

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Clemons, Anthony E. “Conserved Developmental Cues of Aedes aegypti and their Impact on the Mosquito Vector</h1>.” 2014. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Notre Dame. Accessed April 21, 2019. https://curate.nd.edu/show/w089280462m.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Clemons, Anthony E. “Conserved Developmental Cues of Aedes aegypti and their Impact on the Mosquito Vector</h1>.” 2014. Web. 21 Apr 2019.

Vancouver:

Clemons AE. Conserved Developmental Cues of Aedes aegypti and their Impact on the Mosquito Vector</h1>. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Notre Dame; 2014. [cited 2019 Apr 21]. Available from: https://curate.nd.edu/show/w089280462m.

Council of Science Editors:

Clemons AE. Conserved Developmental Cues of Aedes aegypti and their Impact on the Mosquito Vector</h1>. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Notre Dame; 2014. Available from: https://curate.nd.edu/show/w089280462m

2. Καρκαλή, Αικατερίνη. Λειτουργική ανάλυση των φωσφατασών διπλής εξειδίκευσης (DUSPs) στη drosophila melanogaster.

Degree: 2012, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (ΕΚΠΑ)

MAPK (Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases) signaling pathways have been extensively studied and are known to control multiple biological processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and cellular homeostasis. Based on the amino acid residue present in the conserved activation motif TxY, MAPKs are divided in three families, the Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinases (ERKs), the c-Jun N-terminal Kinases (JNKs) and the p38 kinases. MAPKs are activated by a variety of stimuli to induce distinct cellular responses. Environmental stressors have been shown to preferentially induce the activation of JNK and p38 kinases, which together form the MAPK-subgroup of Stress Activated Protein Kinases (SAPKs). The intensity and duration of MAPK activation, amongst other factors, are known to modulate the final outcome of the signaling. Dual Specificity Phosphatases (DUSPs) have emerged as key regulators of MAPK-activity in development, cancer and environmental stress conditions and are promising therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. DUSPs belong to the super-family of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases and are cysteinebased enzymes able to remove phosphate groups from both phospho-tyrosine and phospho-threonine residues. In mammals several members of the DUSP-family have been shown to specifically target and inactivate MAPKs. Analysis of the Drosophila genome, in combination with extensive genetic studies, have provided proof for the main components of the MAPK signaling pathways being highly conserved between mammals and Drosophila, thus establishing the fly as a model organism for their study. DUSPs, as other MAPK-regulators, are evolutionarily conserved in Drosophila melanogaster. In particular, six DUSPs have been annotated in the Drosophila genome of which Puckered is the most studied. Puckered was first identified as a JNKspecific phosphatase involved in the repression of JNK signaling at the final steps of dorsal closure, a late morphogenetic event of Drosophila embryogenesis. Later studies also implicated Puckered in other developmental processes. In adult flies Puckered has been shown to affect innate immunity, wound healing, stress tolerance and longevity. The aim of this study was the functional analysis of DUSPs in Drosophila melanogaster. With respect to that, our efforts focused on two main objectives. First, we were interested in elucidating the post-translational regulatory mechanisms of Puckered activity, under oxidative stress conditions, and second we aimed to address the in vivo role of Puckered in the development and function of the Drosophila nervous system. In silico analysis of the Puckered amino acid sequence revealed several potential sites bearing the consensus phosphorylation motif for MAPKs, mapping mainly to the Cterminus of the protein. To experimentally evaluate these predictions, endogenous MAPK activation was induced by stimulating HEK293 cells, transiently expressing Puckered, with arsenite. Arsenite is a potent activator of the JNK and p38 pathways in HEK293 cells, only inducing a…

Subjects/Keywords: Φωσφατάσες διπλής εξειδίκευσης της Drosophila melanogaster; Ενεργοποιούµενες από µιτογόνα ερεθίσµατα κινάσες; Οξειδωτικό στρες; ΦΩΣΦΟΡΥΛΙΩΣΗ ΠΡΩΤΕΙΝΩΝ; Εµβρυϊκό Νευρικό Σύστηµα της Drosophila melanogaster; Φωσφατάση Puckered; Κινάση του N-τελικού άκρου του µεταγραφικού παράγοντα c-Jun; Κινάση p38; Dual Specificity Phosphatase’s of Drosophila melanogaster; Mitogen – Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs); Oxidative stress; PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION; Embryonic Nervous System of Drosophila melanogaster; Puckered phosphatase; c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); p38 kinase

Record DetailsSimilar RecordsGoogle PlusoneFacebookTwitterCiteULikeMendeleyreddit

APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Καρκαλή, . . (2012). Λειτουργική ανάλυση των φωσφατασών διπλής εξειδίκευσης (DUSPs) στη drosophila melanogaster. (Thesis). National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (ΕΚΠΑ). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10442/hedi/36150

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Καρκαλή, Αικατερίνη. “Λειτουργική ανάλυση των φωσφατασών διπλής εξειδίκευσης (DUSPs) στη drosophila melanogaster.” 2012. Thesis, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (ΕΚΠΑ). Accessed April 21, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10442/hedi/36150.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Καρκαλή, Αικατερίνη. “Λειτουργική ανάλυση των φωσφατασών διπλής εξειδίκευσης (DUSPs) στη drosophila melanogaster.” 2012. Web. 21 Apr 2019.

Vancouver:

Καρκαλή . Λειτουργική ανάλυση των φωσφατασών διπλής εξειδίκευσης (DUSPs) στη drosophila melanogaster. [Internet] [Thesis]. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (ΕΚΠΑ); 2012. [cited 2019 Apr 21]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10442/hedi/36150.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Καρκαλή . Λειτουργική ανάλυση των φωσφατασών διπλής εξειδίκευσης (DUSPs) στη drosophila melanogaster. [Thesis]. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (ΕΚΠΑ); 2012. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10442/hedi/36150

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.