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You searched for subject:(Plant Oil Biofuels). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Indian Institute of Science

1. Deshmukh, Devendra. Studies On Automization And Sprays Of Plant Oil Biofuels Using Laser-Based Diagnostics.

Degree: PhD, Faculty of Engineering, 2014, Indian Institute of Science

Atomization characteristics of liquid fuel sprays control combustion efficiency and emissions in engines. The present work is motivated by the need to study the atomization and spray structure of vegetable oil biofuels for which no data in the literature exists. In this work, various laser-based diagnostic techniques such as laser shadowgraphy, Particle/Droplet Image Analysis (PDIA) and Laser Sheet Dropsizing (LSD) are applied for studying atomization characteristics, tip penetration, droplet size and liquid volume fraction of Pongamia vegetable oil (SVO) and its blends with diesel. A constant volume high pressure spray visualization chamber is designed and fabricated to study SVO sprays at high gas pressure and temperature conditions. This optical chamber can be used for gas pressures up to 60 bar and temperatures up to 600 K. Optical access inside the chamber is provided through four quartz windows to perform various optical spray diagnostic studies. A high pressure spray injection facility based on components of common rail diesel injection system is designed. This facility can provide an injection pressure of up to 1700 bar with independent control over injection duration and timing. A marked difference is observed between diesel and SVO spray structures under atmospheric gas pressure condition. A very interesting observation related to the behavior of 100% SVO fuel when sprayed into atmospheric pressure is the presence of an intact liquid core even at injection pressure as high as 1600 bar. The presence of liquid core at high injection pressures is attributed to the high viscosity of SVOs and the non-Newtonian behavior of these oils under high pressure and shear. The spray characterization of the oil and its blends at high gas pressure shows that although the atomization is dramatically different from that at atmospheric gas pressure, it is still incomplete even at very high injection pressures. For a gas pressure of 30 bar, it is observed that the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) for Pongamia oil is more than twice that of diesel. A new method of simultaneously obtaining two-dimensional droplet size and quantitative liquid volume fraction data in sprays has been developed. Measurements with this method reveal a higher liquid volume fraction at the central axis of spray for Pongamia oil compared to that of diesel indicating potentially poor air-fuel mixing. The experimental data obtained and the spray tip penetration correlations developed for the vegetable oils and blends serve as useful inputs for fuel injection and engine system designers. Advisors/Committee Members: Ravikrishna, R V (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Liquid Fuel Sprays; Combustion Efficiency; Laser-based Diagnostics; Vegetable Oil Biofuels - Spray Atomization; Vegetable Oil Biofuels - Spray Structure; Plant Oil Biofuels; High Pressure Spray Visualization Chamber; Straight Vegetable Oil Sprays; Biofuels; Heat Engineering

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Deshmukh, D. (2014). Studies On Automization And Sprays Of Plant Oil Biofuels Using Laser-Based Diagnostics. (Doctoral Dissertation). Indian Institute of Science. Retrieved from http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/2419

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Deshmukh, Devendra. “Studies On Automization And Sprays Of Plant Oil Biofuels Using Laser-Based Diagnostics.” 2014. Doctoral Dissertation, Indian Institute of Science. Accessed March 04, 2021. http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/2419.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Deshmukh, Devendra. “Studies On Automization And Sprays Of Plant Oil Biofuels Using Laser-Based Diagnostics.” 2014. Web. 04 Mar 2021.

Vancouver:

Deshmukh D. Studies On Automization And Sprays Of Plant Oil Biofuels Using Laser-Based Diagnostics. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Indian Institute of Science; 2014. [cited 2021 Mar 04]. Available from: http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/2419.

Council of Science Editors:

Deshmukh D. Studies On Automization And Sprays Of Plant Oil Biofuels Using Laser-Based Diagnostics. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Indian Institute of Science; 2014. Available from: http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/2419


Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

2. Fabio Leal Mendes. Estudo de pirólise catalítica de biomassa em escala piloto para melhoramento da qualidade do bio-óleo.

Degree: Master, 2011, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

A pirólise rápida é um processo para conversão térmica de uma biomassa sólida em altos rendimentos de um produto líquido chamado de bio-óleo. Uma das alternativas para geração de um bio-óleo com menor teor de oxigênio é uso de catalisadores nos reatores de pirólise, ao invés de um inerte, num processo chamado de pirólise catalítica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar catalisadores comerciais, um ácido e outro básico, em uma unidade piloto de leito fluidizado circulante. O catalisador ácido utilizado foi o Ecat, proveniente de uma unidade industrial de craqueamento catalítico fluido (FCC), e como catalisador básico foi utilizado uma hidrotalcita. Os resultados foram comparados com testes utilizando um material inerte, no caso uma sílica. Uma unidade piloto de FCC do CENPES foi adaptada para realizar os testes de pirólise catalítica. Após fase de modificação e testes de condicionamento, foi comprovada a viabilidade na utilização da unidade piloto adaptada. Contudo, devido a limitações operacionais, maiores tempos de residência tiveram que ser aplicados no reator, configurando o processo como pirólise intermediária. Foram então realizados testes com os três materiais nas temperaturas de 450C e 550C. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento do tempo de residência dos vapores de pirólise teve um impacto significativo nos rendimentos dos produtos quando comparada com o perfil encontrado na literatura para pirólise rápida, pois devido ao incremento das reações secundárias, produziu maiores rendimentos de coque e água, e menores rendimentos de bio-óleo. O Ecat e a hidrotalcita se apresentaram mais efetivos em termos de desoxigenação. O primeiro apresentou maiores taxas de desoxigenação via desidratação e a hidrotalcita apresentou maior capacidade para descarboxilação. Contudo, o uso de Ecat e hidrotalcita não se mostrou adequado para uso em reatores de pirólise intermediária, pois acentuou ainda mais as reações secundárias, gerando um produto com alto teor de água e baixo teor de compostos orgânicos no bio-óleo, além de produzirem mais coque. À temperatura de 450C estes efeitos foram mais pronunciados. Em termos de caracterização química, a condição de pirólise intermediária apontou para a produção de bio-óleos com perfil fenólico, sendo a sílica o que proporcionou os melhores rendimentos, principalmente a temperatura de 550C, sendo superiores aos encontrados na literatura. Analisando as composições dos bio-óleos sob a ótica da produção de biocombustíveis, nenhum dos materiais testados apresentou rendimentos consideráveis em hidrocarbonetos. De maneira geral, a sílica foi o que proporcionou os melhores resultados em termos de rendimento e qualidade do bio-óleo. Sua menor área superficial e sua característica de inerte se mostraram mais adequados para o processo de pirólise intermediária, onde a contribuição das reações secundárias em fase gasosa é elevada em função do tempo de residência no reator

The fast pyrolysis is a thermal process that converts, at high yield, solid biomass into a liquid product called bio-oil. One…

Advisors/Committee Members: Marco Antonio Gaya de Figueiredo, Fátima Maria Zanon Zotim, André Luiz Hemerly Costa, Marcelo Edral Pacheco.

Subjects/Keywords: Planta piloto; biomassa; pirólise; bio-óleo; biocombustíveis.; Pilot plant; biomass; pyrolysis; bio-oil; biofuels; PROCESSOS INDUSTRIAIS DE ENGENHARIA QUIMICA

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Mendes, F. L. (2011). Estudo de pirólise catalítica de biomassa em escala piloto para melhoramento da qualidade do bio-óleo. (Masters Thesis). Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved from http://www.bdtd.uerj.br/tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=6517 ;

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Mendes, Fabio Leal. “Estudo de pirólise catalítica de biomassa em escala piloto para melhoramento da qualidade do bio-óleo.” 2011. Masters Thesis, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Accessed March 04, 2021. http://www.bdtd.uerj.br/tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=6517 ;.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Mendes, Fabio Leal. “Estudo de pirólise catalítica de biomassa em escala piloto para melhoramento da qualidade do bio-óleo.” 2011. Web. 04 Mar 2021.

Vancouver:

Mendes FL. Estudo de pirólise catalítica de biomassa em escala piloto para melhoramento da qualidade do bio-óleo. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro; 2011. [cited 2021 Mar 04]. Available from: http://www.bdtd.uerj.br/tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=6517 ;.

Council of Science Editors:

Mendes FL. Estudo de pirólise catalítica de biomassa em escala piloto para melhoramento da qualidade do bio-óleo. [Masters Thesis]. Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro; 2011. Available from: http://www.bdtd.uerj.br/tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=6517 ;


Indian Institute of Science

3. Mohan, Avulapati Madan. Air-Assited Atomization Strategies For High Viscosity Fuels.

Degree: PhD, Faculty of Engineering, 2016, Indian Institute of Science

Atomization of fuel is an important pre-requisite for efficient combustion in devices such as gas turbines, liquid propellant rocket engines, internal combustion engines and incinerators. The overall objective of the present work is to explore air-assisted atomization strategies for high viscosity fuels and liquids. Air-assisted atomization is a twin-fluid atomization method in which energy of the gas is used to assist the atomization of liquids. Broadly, three categories of air-assisted injection, i.e., effervescent, impinging jet and pre-filming air-blast are studied. Laser-based diagnostics are used to characterize the spray structure in terms of cone angle, penetration and drop size distribution. A backlit direct imaging method is used to study the macroscopic spray characteristics such as spray structure and spray cone angle while the microscopic characteristics are measured using the Particle/droplet imaging analysis (PDIA) technique. Effervescent atomization is a technique in which a small amount of gas is injected into the liquid at high pressure in the form of bubbles. Upon injection, the two-phase mixture expands rapidly and shatters the liquid into droplets and ligaments. Effervescent spray characteristics of viscous fuels such as Jatropha and Pongamia pure plant oils and diesel are studied. Measurements are made at various gas-to-liquid ratios (GLRs) and injection pressures. A Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of the order of 20 µm is achieved at an injection pressure of 10 bar and GLR of 0.2 with viscous fuels. An image-based method is proposed and applied to evaluate the unsteadiness in the spray. A map indicating steady/unsteady regime of operation has been generated. An optically accessible injector tip is developed which has enabled visualization of the two-phase flow structure inside the exit orifice of the atomizer. An important contribution of the present work is the correlation of the two-phase flow regime in the orifice with the external spray structure. For viscous fuels, the spray is observed to be steady only in the annular two-phase flow regime. Unexpanded gas bubbles observed in the liquid core even at an injection pressure of 10 bar indicate that the bubbly flow regime may not be beneficial for high viscosity oils. A novel method of external mixing twin-fluid atomization is developed. In this method, two identical liquid jets impinging at an angle are atomized using a gas jet. The effect of liquid viscosity (1 cP to 39 cP) and surface tension (22 mN/m to 72 mN/m) on this mode of atomization is studied by using water-glycerol and water-ethanol mixtures, respectively. An SMD of the order of 40 µm is achieved for a viscosity of 39 cP at a GLR of 0.13 at a liquid pressure of 8 bar and gas pressure of 5 bar. It is observed that the effect of liquid properties is minimal at high GLRs where the liquid jets are broken before the impingement as in the prompt atomization mode. Finally, a pre-filming air-blast technique is explored for transient spray applications. An SMD of 22 µm is obtained with diesel… Advisors/Committee Members: Ravikrishna, R V (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Motor Fuels; High Viscosity Fuels - Atomization; Effervescent Atomization; Air Assisted Atomization; Impinging Jet Atomization; Twin Fluid Atomization; Biofuels - Atomization; Pre-Filming Air-Blast; Pure Plant Oils - Atomization; Biofuels - Alternative Fuels; Jatropha Oil; Alternative Fuel-gas Turbines; Mechanical Engineering

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Mohan, A. M. (2016). Air-Assited Atomization Strategies For High Viscosity Fuels. (Doctoral Dissertation). Indian Institute of Science. Retrieved from http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/2506

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Mohan, Avulapati Madan. “Air-Assited Atomization Strategies For High Viscosity Fuels.” 2016. Doctoral Dissertation, Indian Institute of Science. Accessed March 04, 2021. http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/2506.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Mohan, Avulapati Madan. “Air-Assited Atomization Strategies For High Viscosity Fuels.” 2016. Web. 04 Mar 2021.

Vancouver:

Mohan AM. Air-Assited Atomization Strategies For High Viscosity Fuels. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Indian Institute of Science; 2016. [cited 2021 Mar 04]. Available from: http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/2506.

Council of Science Editors:

Mohan AM. Air-Assited Atomization Strategies For High Viscosity Fuels. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Indian Institute of Science; 2016. Available from: http://etd.iisc.ac.in/handle/2005/2506

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