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You searched for subject:(Peripersonal Space). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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1. Kandula, Manasa. Properties of the peripersonal space in behaving humans.

Degree: 2020, University Utrecht

Humans are equipped with many systems to help protect us from bodily harm. One of them is the peripersonal space that tries to help us avoid collisions or minimize the impact of collisions with external objects. This small network in the brain monitors the spaces immediately surrounding individual body-parts such as the face, hands, torso, legs and engages defensive responses such as moving the body-part away from the direction of impact, or closing the eyes in the event that impact is expected on the face. The interesting thing is that the protective zones around the body parts of independent of each other, and the defensive responses they trigger are also specific to protecting that body part. This defensive mechanism was the focus of this thesis. Initially discovered in primates, research is now being conducted in humans to gain an understanding of it. In the first study of the thesis, we show that humans are not only capable of anticipating where they are to expect an approaching object to make contact, but they are also capable of extracting exactly when the contact is to occur. We show that anticipating physical contact from a moving object facilitates the activity of the PPS mechanism. That is, both the action of the peripersonal space network and the anticipation of touch together help us prepare and respond to an object that is likely to come in contact with us. In other studies we looked at the properties of the peripersonal space. When the speed of a looming object increases, the defensive PPS around the body-part also increases, so as to be able to trigger the defensive response effectively sooner. This result is directly in line with what was observed in the neuronal activity of monkeys. Neurons tended to respond sooner when the object approaching the monkey loomed faster. We also show that the peripersonal space network integrates information from multiple senses, such as vision and touch to form its responses. That is, when you are able to both see an object approach you and feel its initial touch you are likely to detect it sooner than if you only saw it or felt its touch. This thesis looked at the effect of our action capability on our ability to estimate the locations of approaching objects. We showed that the better your action capability, the better you are estimating the location of a looming object. We compared video game players with non-video game players in a virtual reality task where they had to prevent a looming ball from making contact with an object standing next to them. We then asked the participants to estimate the location of the ball when it changed colour. We found that video game players were not only more effective at stopping the ball, they were also more accurate at estimating the location of the ball. Non-video game players, were slower at stopping the ball and also consistently judged the ball to be closer to them than it actually was. We see that when we need to interact with a looming object, our ability to effectively interact with it determines our judgement of its… Advisors/Committee Members: Dijkerman, Chris, Hofman, Dennis.

Subjects/Keywords: peripersonal space; visuo-tactile contract; prediction of touch

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Kandula, M. (2020). Properties of the peripersonal space in behaving humans. (Doctoral Dissertation). University Utrecht. Retrieved from https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/396186 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-396186 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-396186 ; https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/396186

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Kandula, Manasa. “Properties of the peripersonal space in behaving humans.” 2020. Doctoral Dissertation, University Utrecht. Accessed August 06, 2020. https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/396186 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-396186 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-396186 ; https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/396186.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Kandula, Manasa. “Properties of the peripersonal space in behaving humans.” 2020. Web. 06 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Kandula M. Properties of the peripersonal space in behaving humans. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University Utrecht; 2020. [cited 2020 Aug 06]. Available from: https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/396186 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-396186 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-396186 ; https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/396186.

Council of Science Editors:

Kandula M. Properties of the peripersonal space in behaving humans. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University Utrecht; 2020. Available from: https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/396186 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-396186 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-396186 ; https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/396186

2. Stone, Kayla Dawn. Going out on a limb: Lower limb representations in individuals with and without Body Integrity Identity Disorder.

Degree: 2019, University Utrecht

The aim of this thesis was to examine lower limb perception in healthy individuals and in people with a rare disorder called Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID). BIID is a non-psychotic condition characterized by a strong and persistent desire to amputate/paralyze one or more healthy limbs, often the leg(s). This desire presumably arises from experiencing a mismatch between the mental image of the body and the actual physical and functional boundaries of the body itself. This mismatch might be a product of disturbed integration of lower-level sensory input (e.g. like a touch on the leg) with higher-order models of the body in the brain. Therefore, in this thesis, we used behavioural paradigms to try to tap into this internal mental representation of the legs (and the representation of the space immediately surrounding the legs and feet) with the aim to understand how and if it might be disturbed. We used a range of implicit and explicit behavioural tasks to explore the perceptual representations of the legs and feet. Specifically, I focused on three aspects of the bodily experience: 1) the configuration of the body: specifically, the integrity/shape of the underlying representation, 2) peripersonal space: i.e. the integration of visuo-tactile information in the space immediately surrounding the body, and 3) feelings of embodiment: i.e. how manipulating sensory signals about the body can temporarily ‘remove’ a body part from the bodily experience. We found that healthy participants have a distorted representation of their lower limbs that depends on which type of sensory input is probed (chapter 2). BIID participants showed similar distortions in their leg representation (chapter 5), suggesting that lower limb perception is normal in BIID. Moreover, we showed that healthy people detect tactile stimuli quicker when a visual stimulus is nearby (~ less than 75cm from the feet; chapter 3). Participants with BIID showed similar spatial boundaries around their legs (chapter 6), suggesting that although the leg feels foreign, sensory input on and about the limb is still processed normally. We also showed that people can experience dis-embodiment of their hands and feet to a similar extent using a bodily illusion. How suggestible an individual is to sensory information was also related to the illusion experience (chapter 4). BIID participants experienced a stronger feeling of ‘loss’ over their feet during this illusion, as it is in line with their desired body state. Finally, using a mental rotation task (chapter 7), we showed that the integrity of lower limb representations is robust in the face of limb loss (lower-limb amputees) or the desire to lose a limb (in BIID). Taken together, this battery of investigations tells us more about the fundamental building blocks of body representations in the general population. It also provides further insight into the underlying mechanisms of BIID, as its origin remains unknown. Further research is needed to elucidate these mechanisms, however. Advisors/Committee Members: Dijkerman, Chris, Keizer, Anouk.

Subjects/Keywords: body representation; multisensory; bodily illusions; peripersonal space; mental imagery; xenomelia; amputation; body ownership

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Stone, K. D. (2019). Going out on a limb: Lower limb representations in individuals with and without Body Integrity Identity Disorder. (Doctoral Dissertation). University Utrecht. Retrieved from https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/384442 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-384442 ; urn:isbn:978-90-393-7166-4 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-384442 ; https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/384442

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Stone, Kayla Dawn. “Going out on a limb: Lower limb representations in individuals with and without Body Integrity Identity Disorder.” 2019. Doctoral Dissertation, University Utrecht. Accessed August 06, 2020. https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/384442 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-384442 ; urn:isbn:978-90-393-7166-4 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-384442 ; https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/384442.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Stone, Kayla Dawn. “Going out on a limb: Lower limb representations in individuals with and without Body Integrity Identity Disorder.” 2019. Web. 06 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Stone KD. Going out on a limb: Lower limb representations in individuals with and without Body Integrity Identity Disorder. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University Utrecht; 2019. [cited 2020 Aug 06]. Available from: https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/384442 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-384442 ; urn:isbn:978-90-393-7166-4 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-384442 ; https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/384442.

Council of Science Editors:

Stone KD. Going out on a limb: Lower limb representations in individuals with and without Body Integrity Identity Disorder. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University Utrecht; 2019. Available from: https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/384442 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-384442 ; urn:isbn:978-90-393-7166-4 ; URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1874-384442 ; https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/384442


The Ohio State University

3. Cheong, Yong Jeon. Worlds of Musics: Cognitive Ethnomusicological Inquiries on Experience of Time and Space in Human Music-making.

Degree: PhD, Music, 2019, The Ohio State University

This dissertation is a cognitive ethnomusicological investigation regarding how each individual creates his or her own world via different musical behaviors. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to a model of our sense of time and space from an interdisciplinary perspective. There is a long tradition that we use two cognitive constructs, `time’ and `space’, when talking about the world. In order to understand how we humans construct our own worlds cognitively via music-making, I first distinguished two behaviors in music performance (singing vs. instrument playing). I looked at how the different modes of music-making shape our body in a distinctive way and modifies our perception of time and space. For the cognitive sections (chapters 2 & 3), I discussed not only building blocks of temporal experience but also features of space pertaining to the body. In order to build a comparative perspective (chapter 4), I examined various ancient understandings of time and space in different cultures. In terms of music evolution (chapter 5), I looked at the transformative power of music-making and speculated about potentially different modulatory processes between singing and instrument playing. The discussion in the cognitive sections provided the basic ideas for my `Hear Your Touch’ project consisting of two behavioral experiments (chapter 6). I focused not only on two elements of temporal experience: 1) event detection, and 2) perception of temporal order, but also on several elements of spatial experience: 1) body space, 2) audio-tactile integration, and 3) space pertaining to hands. Both simple reaction time and temporal order judgment experiments provide supporting evidence for differences in spatiotemporal processing between musicians and non-musicians as well as between vocalists and instrumentalists. The simple reaction time experiment suggests that instrumental musical training contributes to enhanced multisensory integration through co-activation. The temporal order judgment experiment indicates not only that musical training changes response to audio-tactile stimuli but also that instrumental training modifies the perception of temporal order. Compared to non-musicians and vocalists, instrumentalists showed significantly lower absolute and difference thresholds. These demonstrate different effects of specific musical training on our perceptions of time and space. My experimental findings support that, although they are often considered as distinctive cognitive constructs (chapter 4), time and space are established together through our bodily experiences. In connection with music evolution (chapter 5), it is highly likely that the use of both vocal and non-vocal sounds in a communication system might have had significant influence on the development of human cognition by transforming our bodies, our perception of, and our action toward the world. This work suggests that there are many musics that allow us to have different worlds. Advisors/Committee Members: Udo, Will (Advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Music; Cognitive Psychology; Philosophy of Science; Evolution and Development; Comparative; music-making; time; space; specific music training; cultural factor; spatiotemporal processing; multisensory integration; audio-tactile; temporal order judgment; simple reaction time; peripersonal space; music evolution; design features; speech surrogates

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Cheong, Y. J. (2019). Worlds of Musics: Cognitive Ethnomusicological Inquiries on Experience of Time and Space in Human Music-making. (Doctoral Dissertation). The Ohio State University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1555598154844572

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Cheong, Yong Jeon. “Worlds of Musics: Cognitive Ethnomusicological Inquiries on Experience of Time and Space in Human Music-making.” 2019. Doctoral Dissertation, The Ohio State University. Accessed August 06, 2020. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1555598154844572.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Cheong, Yong Jeon. “Worlds of Musics: Cognitive Ethnomusicological Inquiries on Experience of Time and Space in Human Music-making.” 2019. Web. 06 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Cheong YJ. Worlds of Musics: Cognitive Ethnomusicological Inquiries on Experience of Time and Space in Human Music-making. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. The Ohio State University; 2019. [cited 2020 Aug 06]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1555598154844572.

Council of Science Editors:

Cheong YJ. Worlds of Musics: Cognitive Ethnomusicological Inquiries on Experience of Time and Space in Human Music-making. [Doctoral Dissertation]. The Ohio State University; 2019. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1555598154844572

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