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You searched for subject:(Pacific Northwest languages). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Portland State University

1. Hamilton, Sarah A. Braun. Writing Chinuk Wawa: A Materials Development Case Study.

Degree: MA, Applied Linguistics, 2010, Portland State University

This study explored the development of new texts by fluent non-native speakers of Chinuk Wawa, an endangered indigenous contact language of the Pacific Northwest United States. The texts were developed as part of the language and culture program of the Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon for use in university-sponsored language classes. The collaborative process of developing 12 texts was explored through detailed revision analysis and interviews with the materials developers and other stakeholders. Fluent non-native speakers relied on collaboration, historical documentation, reference materials, grammatical models, and their own intuitions and cultural sensibilities to develop texts that would be both faithful to the speech of previous generations and effective for instruction. The texts studied were stories and cultural information developed through research-based composition, translation from interlinear and narrative English in ethnographic sources, and editing of transcribed oral narrative. The revision analysis identified points of discussion in the lexical development and grammatical standardization of the language. The preferred strategy for developing new vocabulary was use of language-internal resources such as compounding although borrowing and loan translation from other local Native languages were also sometimes considered appropriate. The multifunctionality of the lexicon and evidence of dialectal and idiolectal usage problematicized the description of an “ideal” language for pedagogical purposes. Concerns were also expressed about detailed grammatical modeling due to potential influence on non-native speaker intuitions and the non-utility of such models for revitalization goals. Decisions made in the process of developing texts contributed to the development of a written form of Chinuk Wawa that would honor and perpetuate the oral language while adapting it for the requirements of inscription. The repeated inclusion of discourse markers and the frequent removal of nominal reference brought final versions of texts closer to oral style, while inclusion of background information and the avoidance of shortened pronouns and auxiliaries customized the presentation for a reading audience. The results of this study comprise a sketch of one aspect of the daily work of language revitalization, in which non-native speakers shoulder responsibility for the growth of a language and its transfer to new generations of speakers. Advisors/Committee Members: Thomas Dieterich.

Subjects/Keywords: Chinook jargon  – Writing  – Study and teaching; Written communication  – Pacific Northwest; Language and languages  – Orthography and spelling; Endangered languages  – Pacific Northwest; Language revival  – Case studies; Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education; Indigenous Studies; Modern Languages

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APA (6th Edition):

Hamilton, S. A. B. (2010). Writing Chinuk Wawa: A Materials Development Case Study. (Masters Thesis). Portland State University. Retrieved from https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/2875

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Hamilton, Sarah A Braun. “Writing Chinuk Wawa: A Materials Development Case Study.” 2010. Masters Thesis, Portland State University. Accessed January 22, 2020. https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/2875.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Hamilton, Sarah A Braun. “Writing Chinuk Wawa: A Materials Development Case Study.” 2010. Web. 22 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Hamilton SAB. Writing Chinuk Wawa: A Materials Development Case Study. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Portland State University; 2010. [cited 2020 Jan 22]. Available from: https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/2875.

Council of Science Editors:

Hamilton SAB. Writing Chinuk Wawa: A Materials Development Case Study. [Masters Thesis]. Portland State University; 2010. Available from: https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/2875


Portland State University

2. Pecore, Abigail Elaina. Motivation in the Portland Chinuk Wawa Language Community.

Degree: MA, Teaching English as a Second Language, 2012, Portland State University

Throughout the world, languages are becoming extinct at an alarming rate. Perhaps half of the 6,000-7,000 languages worldwide will go extinct in the next 50-100 years. One of these dying languages, Chinook Jargon or Chinuk Wawa, a language found in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, is in the process of being revitalized through the concerted efforts of the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde (CTGR). Reasons to revitalize endangered languages often seem irrelevant to our modern daily lives, and revitalizing these languages is a difficult process requiring much dedication, commitment, and persistence. In light of this significant struggle, understanding people's motivations could contribute to a better understanding of how to involve more people in language revitalization. Ideally, such an understanding would contribute to strengthening a community's efforts to revitalize their language. This exploratory, ethnographic case study explores the motivations of eight participants in the Portland Chinuk Wawa language community involved in revitalizing Chinuk Wawa over a nine-month period in 2011. The results of the study showed that seven major themes of motivation were prevalent for the participants: connections made through Chinuk Wawa, preservation of Chinuk Wawa, relationships, instrumental motivation, affective motivation, identity motivation, and demotivation. Advisors/Committee Members: Nariyo Kono.

Subjects/Keywords: Chinook Jargon; Chinuk Wawa; Endangered languages; Chinook jargon  – Revival  – Case studies; Endangered languages  – Pacific Northwest  – Case studies; Language revival  – Psychological aspects  – Case studies; Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education; Indigenous Studies; International and Intercultural Communication

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Pecore, A. E. (2012). Motivation in the Portland Chinuk Wawa Language Community. (Masters Thesis). Portland State University. Retrieved from https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/806

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Pecore, Abigail Elaina. “Motivation in the Portland Chinuk Wawa Language Community.” 2012. Masters Thesis, Portland State University. Accessed January 22, 2020. https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/806.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Pecore, Abigail Elaina. “Motivation in the Portland Chinuk Wawa Language Community.” 2012. Web. 22 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Pecore AE. Motivation in the Portland Chinuk Wawa Language Community. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Portland State University; 2012. [cited 2020 Jan 22]. Available from: https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/806.

Council of Science Editors:

Pecore AE. Motivation in the Portland Chinuk Wawa Language Community. [Masters Thesis]. Portland State University; 2012. Available from: https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/806

3. Robertson, David Douglas. Kamloops Chinuk Wawa, Chinuk pipa, and the vitality of pidgins.

Degree: Dept. of Linguistics, 2012, University of Victoria

This dissertation presents the first full grammatical description of unprompted (spontaneous) speech in pidgin Chinook Jargon [synonyms Chinúk Wawa, Chinook]. The data come from a dialect I term ‘Kamloops Chinúk Wawa’, used in southern interior British Columbia circa 1900. I also present the first historical study and structural analysis of the shorthand-based ‘Chinuk pipa’ alphabet in which Kamloops Chinúk Wawa was written, primarily by Salish people. This study is made possible by the discovery of several hundred such texts, which I have transliterated and analyzed. The Basic Linguistic Theory-inspired (cf. Dixon 2010a,b) framework used here interprets Kamloops Chinúk Wawa as surprisingly ramified in morphological and syntactic structure, a finding in line with recent studies reexamining the status of pidgins by Bakker (e.g. 2003a,b, forthcoming) among others. Among the major findings: an unusually successful pidgin literacy including a widely circulated newspaper Kamloops Wawa, and language planning by the missionary J.M.R. Le Jeune, O.M.I. He planned both for the use of Kamloops Chinúk Wawa and this alphabet, and for their replacement by English. Additional sociolinguistic factors determining how Chinuk pipa was written included Salish preferences for learning to write by whole-word units (rather than letter by letter), and toward informal intra-community teaching of this first group literacy. In addition to compounding and conversion of lexical roots, Kamloops Chinúk Wawa morphology exploited three types of preposed grammatical morphemes—affixes, clitics, and particles. Virtually all are homonymous with and grammaticalized from demonstrably lexical morphs. Newly identified categories include ‘out-of-control’ transitivity marking and discourse markers including ‘admirative’ and ‘inferred’. Contrary to previous claims about Chinook Jargon (cf. Vrzic 1999), no overt passive voice exists in Kamloops Chinúk Wawa (nor probably in pan-Chinook Jargon), but a previously unknown ‘passivization strategy’ of implied agent demotion is brought to light. A realis-irrealis modality distinction is reflected at several scopal levels: phrase, clause and sentence. Functional differences are observed between irrealis clauses before and after main clauses. Polar questions are restricted to subordinate clauses, while alternative questions are formed by simple juxtaposition of irrealis clauses. Main-clause interrogatives are limited to content-question forms, optionally with irrealis marking. Positive imperatives are normally signaled by a mood particle on a realis clause, negative ones by a negative particle. Aspect is marked in a three-part ingressive-imperfective-completive system, with a marginal fourth ‘conative’. One negative operator has characteristically clausal, and another phrasal, scope. One copula is newly attested. Degree marking is largely confined to ‘predicative’ adjectives (copula complements). Several novel features of pronoun usage possibly reflect Salish L1 grammatical habits: a consistent animacy… Advisors/Committee Members: Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa (supervisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Aboriginal languages; Basic Linguistic Theory; BC languages; Chinook Jargon; Chinuk pipa; Canadian languages; Chinuk Wawa; Creolistics; Duployan shorthand; Descriptive linguistics; Documentary linguistics; Endangered languages; First Nations languages; Historical linguistics; Indigenous languages; Kamloops Chinuk Wawa; Kamloops Wawa; Language contact; Le Jeune, J.M.R.; Language revitalization; Lillooet Indians; Literacy; Missionary linguistics; Northwest languages; Okanagan Indians; Pidgin and creole linguistics; Pidgin languages; Pacific Northwest languages; Salish languages; Shorthand; Shuswap Indians; Thompson Indians; Writing systems

languages, in a region such as the Pacific Northwest where large and complex phoneme inventories… …convincingly that Le Jeune maintained a number of phonetic contrasts found in Northwest languages and… …published and unpublished work on pidgins as a class of languages (see References). His… …and sociohistorical descriptions of all the known pidgin and creole languages and their… …various dialects. Full accounts of such previously undescribed or underdescribed languages…and… 

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Robertson, D. D. (2012). Kamloops Chinuk Wawa, Chinuk pipa, and the vitality of pidgins. (Thesis). University of Victoria. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1828/3840

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Robertson, David Douglas. “Kamloops Chinuk Wawa, Chinuk pipa, and the vitality of pidgins.” 2012. Thesis, University of Victoria. Accessed January 22, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/1828/3840.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Robertson, David Douglas. “Kamloops Chinuk Wawa, Chinuk pipa, and the vitality of pidgins.” 2012. Web. 22 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Robertson DD. Kamloops Chinuk Wawa, Chinuk pipa, and the vitality of pidgins. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Victoria; 2012. [cited 2020 Jan 22]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1828/3840.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Robertson DD. Kamloops Chinuk Wawa, Chinuk pipa, and the vitality of pidgins. [Thesis]. University of Victoria; 2012. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1828/3840

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.