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University of Canterbury

1. Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan. Betaine analogues and related compounds for biomedical applications.

Degree: Chemical and Process Engineering, 2006, University of Canterbury

Living cells accumulate compensatory solutes for protection against the harmful effects of extreme environmental conditions such as high salinity, temperature and desiccation. Even at high concentrations these solutes do not disrupt the normal cellular functions and at times counteract by stabilizing the cellular components. These properties of compensatory solutes have been exploited for stabilizing proteins and cells in vitro. Betaines are widespread natural compensatory solutes that have also been used in other applications such as therapeutic agents and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enhancers. Some biomedical applications of novel synthetic analogues of natural betaines were investigated. Natural compensatory solutes are either dipolar zwitterionic compounds or polyhydroxyl compounds, and the physical basis of compensation may differ between these, so one focus was on synthetic betaines with hydroxyl substituents. The majority of the synthetic solutes stabilized different model proteins against stress factors such as high and low temperatures. The presence of hydroxyl groups improved protection against desiccation. The observed stabilization effect is not just on the catalytic activity of the enzyme, but also on its structural conformation. Synthetic compensatory solutes have a potential application as protein stabilizers. Dimethylthetin was evaluated as a therapeutic agent and found to be harmful in a sheep model. However, from the study we were able to generate a large-animal continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) model and showed that glycine betaine could be added to the dialysis fluid in chronic renal failure. Some synthetic compensatory solutes reduce the melting temperatures of DNA better than most natural solutes. Synthetic solutes were identified that have potential to enhance PCR and could replace some reagents marketed by commercial suppliers. Density, viscosity and molecular model data on the solutes showed correlations with the biochemical effects of the solutes, but no physical measurements were found that reliably predicted their potential for biotechnological applications.

Subjects/Keywords: Betaine analogues; synthetic compensatory solutes; compatible solutes; protein stabilization; enzyme stabilization; heat denaturation; freeze-thawing; freeze-drying; protein fluorescence; protein conformation; dimethylthetin; peritoneal dialysis; sheep model; renal failure; homocysteine; DNA melting temperature; PCR enhancers; fragile X PCR; apparent hydration number; dipole mement; polarizability; mulliken charges; biotechnological applications

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Vasudevamurthy, M. (2006). Betaine analogues and related compounds for biomedical applications. (Thesis). University of Canterbury. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10092/1096

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan. “Betaine analogues and related compounds for biomedical applications.” 2006. Thesis, University of Canterbury. Accessed June 06, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10092/1096.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan. “Betaine analogues and related compounds for biomedical applications.” 2006. Web. 06 Jun 2020.

Vancouver:

Vasudevamurthy M. Betaine analogues and related compounds for biomedical applications. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of Canterbury; 2006. [cited 2020 Jun 06]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10092/1096.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Vasudevamurthy M. Betaine analogues and related compounds for biomedical applications. [Thesis]. University of Canterbury; 2006. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10092/1096

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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