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1. Siivola, Vesa. Language Models for Automatic Speech Recognition: Construction and Complexity Control.

Degree: 2007, Helsinki University of Technology

The language model is one of the key components of a large vocabulary continuous speech recognition system. Huge text corpora can be used for training the language models. In this thesis, methods for extracting the essential information from the training data and expressing the information as a compact model are studied. The thesis is divided in three main parts. In the first part, the issue of choosing the best base modeling unit for the prevalent language modeling method, n-gram language modeling, is examined. The experiments are focused on morpheme-like subword units, although syllables are also tried. Rule-based grammatical methods and unsupervised statistical methods for finding morphemes are compared with the baseline word model. The Finnish cross-entropy and speech recognition experiments show that significantly more efficient models can be created using automatically induced morpheme-like subword units as the basis of the language model. In the second part, methods for choosing the n-grams that have explicit probability estimates in the n-gram model are studied. Two new methods specialized on selecting the n-grams for Kneser-Ney smoothed n-gram models are presented, one for pruning and one for growing the model. The methods are compared with entropy-based pruning and Kneser pruning. Experiments on Finnish and English text corpora show that the proposed pruning method gives considerable improvements over the previous pruning algorithms for Kneser-Ney smoothed models and also is better than entropy pruned Good-Turing smoothed model. Using the growing algorithm for creating a starting point for the pruning algorithm further improves the results. The improvements in Finnish speech recognition over the other Kneser-Ney smoothed models were significant as well. To extract more information from the training corpus, words should not be treated as independent tokens. The syntactic and semantic similarities of the words should be taken into account in the language model. The last part of this thesis explores, how these similarities can be modeled by mapping the words into continuous space representations. A language model formulated in the state-space modeling framework is presented. Theoretically, the state-space language model has several desirable properties. The state dimension should determine, how much the model is forced to generalize. The need to learn long-term dependencies should be automatically balanced with the need to remember the short-term dependencies in detail. The experiments show that training a model that fulfills all the theoretical promises is hard: the training algorithm has high computational complexity and it mainly finds local minima. These problems still need further research.

Kielimalli on yksi avainosa suurisanastoisessa jatkuvan puheen tunnistusjärjestelmässä. Valtavia tekstiaineistoja on saatavilla kielimallien opettamiseen. Tässä väitöstyössä tutkitaan, miten opetusaineistosta löydetään oleelliset asiat ja miten ne voidaan esittää tiiviisti mallissa. Väitöstyö on jaettu kolmeen…

Advisors/Committee Members: Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Computer and Information Science.

Subjects/Keywords: language model; speech recognition; subword unit; morpheme segmentation; variable order n-gram model; pruning; growing; state-space language model; kielimalli; puheentunnistus; sanapala; morfeemeihin jako; vaihtelevanasteinen n-grammimalli; karsiminen; kasvattaminen; tila-avaruuskielimalli

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APA (6th Edition):

Siivola, V. (2007). Language Models for Automatic Speech Recognition: Construction and Complexity Control. (Thesis). Helsinki University of Technology. Retrieved from http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2007/isbn9789512288946/

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Siivola, Vesa. “Language Models for Automatic Speech Recognition: Construction and Complexity Control.” 2007. Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology. Accessed September 26, 2020. http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2007/isbn9789512288946/.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Siivola, Vesa. “Language Models for Automatic Speech Recognition: Construction and Complexity Control.” 2007. Web. 26 Sep 2020.

Vancouver:

Siivola V. Language Models for Automatic Speech Recognition: Construction and Complexity Control. [Internet] [Thesis]. Helsinki University of Technology; 2007. [cited 2020 Sep 26]. Available from: http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2007/isbn9789512288946/.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Siivola V. Language Models for Automatic Speech Recognition: Construction and Complexity Control. [Thesis]. Helsinki University of Technology; 2007. Available from: http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2007/isbn9789512288946/

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation


University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign

2. Rezvani, Sepideh. Approximating rotation algebras and inclusions of C*-algebras.

Degree: PhD, Mathematics, 2017, University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign

In the first part of this thesis, we will follow Kirchberg’s categorical perspective to establish new notions of WEP and QWEP relative to a C∗-algebra, and develop similar properties as in the classical WEP and QWEP. Also we will show some examples of relative WEP and QWEP to illustrate the relations with the classical cases. The focus of the second part of this thesis is the approximation of rotation algebras in the quantum Gromov–Hausdorff distance. We introduce the completely bounded quantum Gromov–Hausdorff distance and show that for even dimensions, the higher dimensional rotation algebras can be approximated by matrix algebras in this sense. Finally, we show that for even dimensions, matrix algebras converge to the rotation algebras in the strongest form of Gromov–Hausdorff distance, namely in the sense of Latrémolière’s Gromov–Hausdorff propinquity. Advisors/Committee Members: Junge, Marius (advisor), Boca, Florin (Committee Chair), Ruan, Zhong-Jin (committee member), Oikhberg, Timur (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: C*-algebras; Weak expectation property (WEP); Quotient weak expectation property (QWEP); A-WEP; A-QWEP; Relatively weak injectivity; Order-unit space; Noncommutative tori; Compact quantum metric space; Conditionally negative length function; Heat semigroup; Poisson semigroup; Rotation algebra; Continuous field of compact quantum metric spaces; Gromov–Hausdorff distance; Completely bounded quantum Gromov–Hausdorff distance; Gromov–Hausdorff propinquity

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Rezvani, S. (2017). Approximating rotation algebras and inclusions of C*-algebras. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2142/97307

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Rezvani, Sepideh. “Approximating rotation algebras and inclusions of C*-algebras.” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign. Accessed September 26, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/2142/97307.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Rezvani, Sepideh. “Approximating rotation algebras and inclusions of C*-algebras.” 2017. Web. 26 Sep 2020.

Vancouver:

Rezvani S. Approximating rotation algebras and inclusions of C*-algebras. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign; 2017. [cited 2020 Sep 26]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/97307.

Council of Science Editors:

Rezvani S. Approximating rotation algebras and inclusions of C*-algebras. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/97307


University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign

3. Lee, Shih-hao. Efficient Finite Element Electromagnetic Analysis for High-Frequency/High-Speed Circuits And Multiconductor Transmission Lines.

Degree: PhD, Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2009, University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign

This dissertation comprises the following four components. (1) Development of a robust and efficient 3-D finite element electromagnetic field solver with high-order vector elements for high-frequency and high-speed circuit simulations. The solver supports wave port and lumped port excitations as well as the incorporation of lumped networks and circuit models in a distributed finite element model. An adaptive multipoint model order reduction method is developed for fast broadband analysis. (2) Development of a fast and accurate multiconductor transmission line simulator and parameter extractor with improved model order reduction techniques. A methodology is further proposed for a combined quasi-TEM and full-wave transmission line analysis, which possesses their respective advantages and ensures full-wave accuracy from DC to very high frequencies. The transmission line analysis also takes into account the frequency dependence of dielectric materials. (3) Study of the low-frequency instability problem in the 3-D full-wave finite element simulation. The tree-cotree splitting is combined with several other techniques to improve the matrix conditioning and extend full-wave solutions down to very low frequencies for a more robust broadband characterization of high-speed digital circuits. (4) A combined domain decomposition–model order reduction (DD–MOR) method for efficient full-wave analysis of interconnections in multilayer printed circuit boards. The method not only brings a significant enhancement to computational efficiency while maintaining full-wave accuracy, but also provides great flexibility in the finite element mesh generation. Advisors/Committee Members: Jin, Jianming (advisor), Jin, Jianming (Committee Chair), Cangellaris, Andreas C. (committee member), Schutt-Ainé, José E. (committee member), Feng, Milton (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: electromagnetics; microwave; finite element method (FEM); nodal elements; vector elements; edge elements; higher-order elements; triangular elements; tetrahedral elements; finite element analysis; full-wave analysis; impedance boundary condition; port boundary condition; wave port; lumped port; deembedding; thin-wire approximation; thin wire modeling; internal impedance; lumped elements; lumped circuits; field-circuit simulation; EM-circuit simulation; stamping; reduced-order modeling; model order reduction (MOR); fast frequency sweep; solution space projection (SSP); quasi-static analysis; quasi-TEM analysis; generalized eigenproblem; Lanczos algorithm; modal analysis; eigenanalysis; frequency-dependent media; anisotropic media; Debye model; multiconductor transmission lines; transmission line parameters; frequency-dependent losses; conductor loss; dielectric loss; substrate loss; characteristic impedance; skin effect; proximity effect; parameter extraction; resistance; inductance; capacitance; conductance; per-unit-length; composite conductors; waveguide; filter; coplanar waveguide (CPW); striplines; microstrip lines; high-frequency circuits; RF circuits; high-speed circuits; tree-cotree splitting; low-frequency breakdown; low-frequency instability; preconditioning; bonding wire; printed circuit board; multilayer printed circuit board (PCB); via-holes; signal integrity; electromagnetic coupling; interconnects; domain decomposition; Approximate Modal Interface (AMI); Approximate Modal Interface–Solution Space Projection (AMI–SSP); domain decomposition–model order reduction (DD–MOR); computer-aided design (CAD)

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Lee, S. (2009). Efficient Finite Element Electromagnetic Analysis for High-Frequency/High-Speed Circuits And Multiconductor Transmission Lines. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2142/11987

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Lee, Shih-hao. “Efficient Finite Element Electromagnetic Analysis for High-Frequency/High-Speed Circuits And Multiconductor Transmission Lines.” 2009. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign. Accessed September 26, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/2142/11987.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Lee, Shih-hao. “Efficient Finite Element Electromagnetic Analysis for High-Frequency/High-Speed Circuits And Multiconductor Transmission Lines.” 2009. Web. 26 Sep 2020.

Vancouver:

Lee S. Efficient Finite Element Electromagnetic Analysis for High-Frequency/High-Speed Circuits And Multiconductor Transmission Lines. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign; 2009. [cited 2020 Sep 26]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/11987.

Council of Science Editors:

Lee S. Efficient Finite Element Electromagnetic Analysis for High-Frequency/High-Speed Circuits And Multiconductor Transmission Lines. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign; 2009. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/11987

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