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You searched for subject:(Nutritional symbiosis). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

1. Lundén, Karl. Heterobasidion - conifer pathosystem.

Degree: 2010, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

In this thesis the Heterobasidion – conifer pathosystem is discussed in a symbiosis context. Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.)Bref. s.l. is a species complex with closely related species with partly overlapping host range. There are three European Heterobasidion species, H. annosum, H. abietinum and H. parviporum. In the first study it was shown that cDNA arrays printed for one species can be used to study gene expression in the other species. H. annosum can grow both as a saprotroph on dead wood or kill its conifer host as a necrotroph. This possibility to switch nutritional mode has impact on forest management as H. annosum can prevail in old wood for decades until infecting the next generation of trees. Gene expression patterns during the transition from saprotrophic to necrotrophic growth were studied in a nutrient limited microcosm system with dead and living Pinus sylvestris seedlings connected by a common mycelium. These results were compared with gene expression patterns of H. annosum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (saprotroph) and Paxillus involutus (mutualist) growing in nutrient rich systems. In the nutrient rich comparison a higher correlation was found, than between the saprotrophic and necrotrophic growth of H. annosum where no differentially expressed genes were identified. However differences were found when the genes were annotated into functional categories by KOG groups. This suggests that differences between the two growth modes might depend on the magnitude of gene expression rather than distinct qualitative differences. The specificity of two mycorrhiza-associated Pinus genes (similar to Clavata 1 and MtN21) in comparison to known auxin-induced and defence genes through early signalling and ECM development with and without the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA was further investigated. The Clv-1-like gene seems to be associated with lateral root formation since expression was detected in root primordia during lateral root formation and in mycorrhizal roots.

Subjects/Keywords: heterobasidion annosum; conifers; symbiosis; saprotroph; growth; genes; gene expression; pinus sylvestris; auxins; mycorrhizae; Heterobasidion annosum; symbiosis; nutritional mode; saprotroph; Clv-l-like; gene expression; Pinus sylvestris; array; auxin; mycorrhiza

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APA (6th Edition):

Lundén, K. (2010). Heterobasidion - conifer pathosystem. (Doctoral Dissertation). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved from http://pub.epsilon.slu.se/2222/

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Lundén, Karl. “Heterobasidion - conifer pathosystem.” 2010. Doctoral Dissertation, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Accessed August 14, 2020. http://pub.epsilon.slu.se/2222/.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Lundén, Karl. “Heterobasidion - conifer pathosystem.” 2010. Web. 14 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Lundén K. Heterobasidion - conifer pathosystem. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; 2010. [cited 2020 Aug 14]. Available from: http://pub.epsilon.slu.se/2222/.

Council of Science Editors:

Lundén K. Heterobasidion - conifer pathosystem. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; 2010. Available from: http://pub.epsilon.slu.se/2222/


Western Washington University

2. Levine, Michael R. (Michael Rory). The effects of season and microhabitat on the distribution and nutritional contributions of two algal symbionts in the intertidal anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica.

Degree: MS, Environmental Sciences, 2010, Western Washington University

The intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica is distributed widely along the Pacific coast, from Baja California Mexico (~30ºN) to southern Alaska (57ºN). In much of its range, A. xanthogrammica has the ability to co-host algal symbionts from two distinct taxa known as zoochlorellae (the chlorophyte Elliptochloris marina) and zooxanthellae (brown dinophytes in the genus Symbiodinium). Laboratory studies and field distributions have demonstrated that zoochlorellae and zooxanthellae represent "cool" and "warm" symbionts respectively, based on their relative temperature tolerances and intertidal distributions. This study examined the effects of two intertidal microhabitats on the seasonal distribution, density, and mitotic index of zoochlorellae and zooxanthellae in tentacles of A. xanthogrammica at Slip Point, Clallam Bay WA (48ºN). Tentacles were sampled from anemones at both the lower and upper intertidal limits of the distribution of A. xanthogrammica in tidepools and surge channels in July 2008, November 2008, and April 2009. Temperatures in these microhabitats were recorded with data loggers from summer 2008 to summer 2009. The surge channel microhabitat at Slip Point experienced more extreme temperatures (both higher high temperatures and lower low temperatures) than the tidepool. The distribution and density of zoochlorellae (but not of zooxanthellae) in A. xanthogrammica tentacles differed in these microhabitats. Anemone tentacles containing dense zoochlorellae assemblages predominated in low intertidal tidepools and low surge channels as well as in the high tidepool microhabitat; zoochlorellae density was much lower in the high surge channel. The density of zooxanthellae was low in all microhabitats, and was often nearly one order of magnitude lower than that of zoochlorellae. Patterns in symbiont density in anemones between microhabitats were consistent in all seasons. Comparatively high temperatures in the high surge channel are the likely cause of the reduced density of zoochlorellae (and of the higher proportion of zooxanthellae) in this microhabitat. The distribution of zoochlorellae was not related to differences in algal growth rates alone, as there were no significant differences in the mitotic index of zoochlorellae from the high tidepool and the high surge channel algal populations, despite large differences in algal density of tentacles between these two habitats. Symbiont composition was stable seasonally, with more than 80% of anemone tentacles containing predominantly zoochlorellae in all seasons. The relative contributions of zoochlorellae, mixed algal assemblages composed primarily of zoochlorellae, and of Mytilus californianus mussels (the dominant heterotrophic food source) to the diet of A. xanthogrammica were estimated using stable isotope analysis in summer 2008 and spring 2009. The carbon contributions of symbionts (~62-70%) were greater than those of external food sources (~31-38%) in both seasons. Zoochlorellae contribute substantially to A. xanthogrammica diet, based on… Advisors/Committee Members: Muller-Parker, Gisele, Bingham, Brian L., 1960-, Donovan, Deborah Anne, 1964-.

Subjects/Keywords: Marine Biology; Sea anemones – Effect of temperature on; Marine algae – Effect of temperature on; Marine algae – Nutritional aspects; Symbiosis; masters theses

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APA (6th Edition):

Levine, M. R. (. R. (2010). The effects of season and microhabitat on the distribution and nutritional contributions of two algal symbionts in the intertidal anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica. (Masters Thesis). Western Washington University. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.25710/8trx-0a29 ; https://cedar.wwu.edu/wwuet/35

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Levine, Michael R (Michael Rory). “The effects of season and microhabitat on the distribution and nutritional contributions of two algal symbionts in the intertidal anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica.” 2010. Masters Thesis, Western Washington University. Accessed August 14, 2020. https://doi.org/10.25710/8trx-0a29 ; https://cedar.wwu.edu/wwuet/35.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Levine, Michael R (Michael Rory). “The effects of season and microhabitat on the distribution and nutritional contributions of two algal symbionts in the intertidal anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica.” 2010. Web. 14 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Levine MR(R. The effects of season and microhabitat on the distribution and nutritional contributions of two algal symbionts in the intertidal anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Western Washington University; 2010. [cited 2020 Aug 14]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.25710/8trx-0a29 ; https://cedar.wwu.edu/wwuet/35.

Council of Science Editors:

Levine MR(R. The effects of season and microhabitat on the distribution and nutritional contributions of two algal symbionts in the intertidal anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica. [Masters Thesis]. Western Washington University; 2010. Available from: https://doi.org/10.25710/8trx-0a29 ; https://cedar.wwu.edu/wwuet/35

3. Body, Mélanie. Manipulations des végétaux par les organismes endophytes : mécanismes physiologiques, signalisation et conséquences nutritionnelles chez un insecte mineur de feuilles : Plant manipulation by endophagous organisms : physiological mechanisms, signaling, and nutritional consequences in a leaf-miner insect.

Degree: Docteur es, Sciences biologiques, 2013, Université François-Rabelais de Tours

Les insectes endophytophages, tels que les insectes foreurs de tiges, les galligènes et les mineurs de feuilles, vivent et se nourrissent à l’intérieur des végétaux. L'hypothèse de l'alimentation sélective stipule que ces organismes endophytes possèdent un avantage adaptatif par rapport aux ectophages en accédant aux tissus les plus nutritifs tout en évitant les principaux composés défensifs de la plante. Ce comportement d’alimentation sélective peut être également renforcé par une manipulation de la physiologie de la plante comme cela a été démontré chez les insectes galligènes mais également suggéré chez certains insectes mineurs. Ces derniers sont en effet capables d’induire un phénotype « îles vertes » qui se manifestent par la persistance de la photosynthèse au niveau de la zone minée à l'automne alors que le reste de la feuille entre en sénescence et jaunit. L’objectif de notre étude a été d’étudier, en conditions de terrain, les capacités de manipulation du végétal dans le système Malus domestica / Phyllonorycter blancardella. Cet insecte hautement spécialisé complète l’ensemble de son développement dans une zone restreinte d’une seule feuille.

Endophytophagous insects, such as stem-boring, gall-forming and leaf-mining insects, live within plant tissues and feed internally. The selective feeding hypothesis states that this life-style presumably provides adaptive advantages for the insect over other external-feeding modes by allowing access to most nutritional tissues while avoiding main plant defensive compounds. This selective feeding behavior can be reinforced by manipulating the plant physiology which has been clearly demonstrated in gallers but also suggested in leaf-miner insects due to the autumnal formation of “green islands” around mining caterpillars in yellow leaves. This study aimed to investigate, under field conditions, the ability of insects to manipulate their host-plant in the Malus domestica / Phyllonorycter blancardella biological system. This insect is highly specialized and entirely develops within a restricted area of a single leaf. We first characterized the plant-insect interface by describing larval mouthparts and leaf anatomy alterations resulting from the insect feeding activity.

Advisors/Committee Members: Giron, David (thesis director).

Subjects/Keywords: Interactions plantes-insectes; Écologie nutritionnelle des insectes; Homéostasie nutritionnelle; Mécanismes de régulation pré- et post-ingestion; Manipulation de la plante-hôte; Métabolisme primaire des plantes; Phénotype étendu; Îles vertes; Symbiose nutritionnelle; Insectes endophytophages; Mineuses de feuilles; Phyllonorycter blancardella; Malus domestica; Wolbachia; Cytokinines; Sucres; Acides aminés; Plant-insect interactions; Insect nutritional ecology; Nutritional homeostasis; Pre- and post-ingestive regulatory mechanism; Host-plant manipulation; Plant primary metabolism; Extended phenotype; Green-islands; Nutritional symbiosis; Endophytophagous insects; Leaf-miner; Phyllonorycter blancardella; Malus domestica; Wolbachia; Cytokinins; Sugars; Amino acids

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Body, M. (2013). Manipulations des végétaux par les organismes endophytes : mécanismes physiologiques, signalisation et conséquences nutritionnelles chez un insecte mineur de feuilles : Plant manipulation by endophagous organisms : physiological mechanisms, signaling, and nutritional consequences in a leaf-miner insect. (Doctoral Dissertation). Université François-Rabelais de Tours. Retrieved from http://www.theses.fr/2013TOUR4054

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Body, Mélanie. “Manipulations des végétaux par les organismes endophytes : mécanismes physiologiques, signalisation et conséquences nutritionnelles chez un insecte mineur de feuilles : Plant manipulation by endophagous organisms : physiological mechanisms, signaling, and nutritional consequences in a leaf-miner insect.” 2013. Doctoral Dissertation, Université François-Rabelais de Tours. Accessed August 14, 2020. http://www.theses.fr/2013TOUR4054.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Body, Mélanie. “Manipulations des végétaux par les organismes endophytes : mécanismes physiologiques, signalisation et conséquences nutritionnelles chez un insecte mineur de feuilles : Plant manipulation by endophagous organisms : physiological mechanisms, signaling, and nutritional consequences in a leaf-miner insect.” 2013. Web. 14 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Body M. Manipulations des végétaux par les organismes endophytes : mécanismes physiologiques, signalisation et conséquences nutritionnelles chez un insecte mineur de feuilles : Plant manipulation by endophagous organisms : physiological mechanisms, signaling, and nutritional consequences in a leaf-miner insect. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Université François-Rabelais de Tours; 2013. [cited 2020 Aug 14]. Available from: http://www.theses.fr/2013TOUR4054.

Council of Science Editors:

Body M. Manipulations des végétaux par les organismes endophytes : mécanismes physiologiques, signalisation et conséquences nutritionnelles chez un insecte mineur de feuilles : Plant manipulation by endophagous organisms : physiological mechanisms, signaling, and nutritional consequences in a leaf-miner insect. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Université François-Rabelais de Tours; 2013. Available from: http://www.theses.fr/2013TOUR4054

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