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You searched for subject:(North Atlantic storminess). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of Exeter

1. Orme, Lisa Claire. Reconstructions of Late Holocene storminess in Europe and the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

Degree: PhD, 2014, University of Exeter

Winter storms can have devastating social and economic impacts in Europe. The severity of storms and the region they influence (southern or northern Europe) is related to the index of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). However recent findings indicate that over the last millennium the relationship between the NAO and storminess varied and the forcings over centennial timescales are debated. Therefore in this research storminess has been reconstructed from NAO-sensitive regions of southern Europe (Galicia, Spain) and northern Europe (Outer Hebrides, Scotland), to investigate the Late Holocene NAO-storminess relationship and the causes of observed variability. Reconstructions were based on measurements of aeolian sand deposits within ombrotrophic peat bogs and a lake sedimentary archive from the Hebrides. The elemental composition of the lake sediments were analysed (using ITRAX XRF core scanning) to identify aeolian/in-washed sediment resulting from storms, as confirmed by correlations with instrumental data. As this is a relatively new technique there was a methodological focus on assessing its applicability for storm reconstructions and the maximum resolution achievable. It is concluded the reconstruction had a 10-year resolution (equivalent to 2-5 mm sampling resolution). The peat bog reconstructions span 4000 cal yr BP to present and indicate that there was a Late Holocene northward storm track shift. The results suggest that storminess was high in Galicia between 4000-1800 cal yr BP, after which it decreased and then gradually increased in the Outer Hebrides after 1500 cal yr BP. Comparison with an NAO reconstruction supports a consistent NAO-storm relationship through the Late Holocene. Orbital forcing is suggested as causing a steepening of the latitudinal temperature gradient and increasingly zonal circulation. Superimposed on this trend are centennial variations, which spectral analysis and visual comparisons suggest are primarily the result of solar minima (suggested as causing a weakened latitudinal temperature gradient and meridional circulation patterns), with some additional forcing from volcanic and oceanic changes. Therefore there has been a consistent storm-NAO relationship through the Late Holocene; however there appear to have been millennial and centennial shifts as the result of hemispheric circulation reorganisations.

Subjects/Keywords: 550; Storminess; Holocene; North Atlantic Oscillation; Europe

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Orme, L. C. (2014). Reconstructions of Late Holocene storminess in Europe and the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Exeter. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10871/16128

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Orme, Lisa Claire. “Reconstructions of Late Holocene storminess in Europe and the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation.” 2014. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Exeter. Accessed December 04, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10871/16128.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Orme, Lisa Claire. “Reconstructions of Late Holocene storminess in Europe and the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation.” 2014. Web. 04 Dec 2020.

Vancouver:

Orme LC. Reconstructions of Late Holocene storminess in Europe and the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Exeter; 2014. [cited 2020 Dec 04]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10871/16128.

Council of Science Editors:

Orme LC. Reconstructions of Late Holocene storminess in Europe and the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Exeter; 2014. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10871/16128


University of Stirling

2. Stewart, Helena K. Peat’s secret archive: Interpreting the geochemical and palaeodust record from Scottish peat as a potential index of North Atlantic storminess and Holocene climate change.

Degree: PhD, 2016, University of Stirling

Four continuous high-resolution peat records for the Holocene have been reconstructed across a ~300km transect from Shebster in Caithness to Yell in the Shetland Isles. These records describe the nature and extent of North Atlantic climate changes inferred from indicators of storminess and minerogenic aeolian dust, and are supported by radiogenic isotope analysis, tephrochronology and radiocarbon dating. The environmental changes at all four sites displays a significant degree of synchrony in response to changes in the position of the polar front jet (PFJ) stream and the phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Bromine concentrations in the peat, derived from sea spray, are used to reconstruct storm frequency and storm intensity, and mire surface wetness is used as an indicator of longer-term climate shifts. The results suggest a strong link between positive phases of the NAO and storminess. Subtle differences between the bromine concentrations and the mire surface wetness suggest that high intensity but perhaps less frequent periods of storminess are not necessarily associated with a wetter climate. Atmospheric minerogenic dust concentrations are used to reconstruct large-scale climate changes across the wider North Atlantic region. The results suggest a sympathy between dust activity and periods of glacial advance and a negative index of the NAO. Radiogenic isotope analysis suggests that the smallest particles may originate from Iceland.

Subjects/Keywords: storminess; North Atlantic Oscillation; polar front jet stream; dust; Fronts (Meteorology); Paleoecology Holocene; Storms North Atlantic Region; Jet stream; Peatlands Scotland; North Atlantic oscillation

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Stewart, H. K. (2016). Peat’s secret archive: Interpreting the geochemical and palaeodust record from Scottish peat as a potential index of North Atlantic storminess and Holocene climate change. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Stirling. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1893/24811

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Stewart, Helena K. “Peat’s secret archive: Interpreting the geochemical and palaeodust record from Scottish peat as a potential index of North Atlantic storminess and Holocene climate change.” 2016. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Stirling. Accessed December 04, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/1893/24811.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Stewart, Helena K. “Peat’s secret archive: Interpreting the geochemical and palaeodust record from Scottish peat as a potential index of North Atlantic storminess and Holocene climate change.” 2016. Web. 04 Dec 2020.

Vancouver:

Stewart HK. Peat’s secret archive: Interpreting the geochemical and palaeodust record from Scottish peat as a potential index of North Atlantic storminess and Holocene climate change. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Stirling; 2016. [cited 2020 Dec 04]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/24811.

Council of Science Editors:

Stewart HK. Peat’s secret archive: Interpreting the geochemical and palaeodust record from Scottish peat as a potential index of North Atlantic storminess and Holocene climate change. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Stirling; 2016. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/24811


University of Lund

3. Yu, Shiyong. The Littorina transgression in southeastern Sweden and its relation to mid-Holocene climate variability.

Degree: 2003, University of Lund

Lateglacial and Holocene shoreline displacement along the Baltic coast resulted from both the isostatic land uplift and the ice-volume-equivalent sea-level rise. Relative changes of these two components led to alternating contact/isolation of the Baltic Basin with the North Sea during the Holocene. The Littorina transgression was a significant palaeoceanographic change that took place during the mid-Holocene in southern Sweden. However, the detailed pattern of the transgression has long been debated. As yet, the rate, magnitude and cause(s) of the transgression as well as the physical link with the North Atlantic climate are poorly known. In this study, shoreline displacement and coastal palaeoecology were reconstructed on the basis of multi-disciplinary studies of sediment sequences from four basins located at an elevation range between –1 and 8 m above present sea level in southeastern Sweden. Coastal basins with well defined thresholds may provide powerful constraints on relative sea-level changes. The timing of the Littorina transgression was determined by dating the lacustrine/brackish-marine transitions in sediment sequences recovered from these basins. Following a slight rise, the transgression culminated between 8000 and 7500 cal. BP, marked by a c. 8-m relative sea-level rise at an accelerated rate of ~15 mm yr-1. This relatively rapid rise can be ascribed to the partial collapse of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. From 6500 cal. BP, the relative level of the Baltic Sea fell as a result of the deceleration of global sea-level rise and continued isostatic rebound. Superimposed on this eustatic pattern are five minor transgressions identified during the middle Holocene: L1 8500–8200, L2 7800–6900, L3 6400–5600, L4 5300–4700, and L5 4500–4100 cal. BP. Evidence from the northwestern European coasts and Greenland ice cores suggests that these episodic sea-level rises may have been related to increased storminess in the North Atlantic realm, which overprinted global ice-volume changes at millennial time scales. Superimposed on a general highstand, the Baltic Sea level exhibited significant fluctuations at centennial time scales between 8500 and 3000 cal. BP. A close correlation between sea-level proxies and Greenland ice-core sea-salt ions implies that these cyclic fluctuations of Baltic Sea level might have been causally linked to periodical variations in regional wind pattern, probably operated by solar forcing in the Suess band through a thermodynamic mechanism. Other cycles may also be a signal of long-term changes in tidal intensity, when the connection of the Baltic basin with the North Sea was wider during the middle Holocene.

Subjects/Keywords: Geology; marklära; kartografi; Fysisk geografi; geomorfologi; climatology; cartography; pedology; geomorphology; Physical geography; tidal action; solar forcing; global meltwater pulse; North Atlantic storminess; climate changes; shoreline displacements; sea-level fluctuations; Littorina transgression; Baltic Sea; klimatologi

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Yu, S. (2003). The Littorina transgression in southeastern Sweden and its relation to mid-Holocene climate variability. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Lund. Retrieved from https://lup.lub.lu.se/record/466416 ; https://portal.research.lu.se/ws/files/4863150/1693171.pdf

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Yu, Shiyong. “The Littorina transgression in southeastern Sweden and its relation to mid-Holocene climate variability.” 2003. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Lund. Accessed December 04, 2020. https://lup.lub.lu.se/record/466416 ; https://portal.research.lu.se/ws/files/4863150/1693171.pdf.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Yu, Shiyong. “The Littorina transgression in southeastern Sweden and its relation to mid-Holocene climate variability.” 2003. Web. 04 Dec 2020.

Vancouver:

Yu S. The Littorina transgression in southeastern Sweden and its relation to mid-Holocene climate variability. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Lund; 2003. [cited 2020 Dec 04]. Available from: https://lup.lub.lu.se/record/466416 ; https://portal.research.lu.se/ws/files/4863150/1693171.pdf.

Council of Science Editors:

Yu S. The Littorina transgression in southeastern Sweden and its relation to mid-Holocene climate variability. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Lund; 2003. Available from: https://lup.lub.lu.se/record/466416 ; https://portal.research.lu.se/ws/files/4863150/1693171.pdf

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