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University of New Mexico

1. Medina, Una E. MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL.

Degree: Department of Communication and Journalism, 2010, University of New Mexico

One out of three Americans undergoes drunk-driving crashes; 23% result in death. To deter DWIs (Driving While under Influence), MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Drivers) created VIPs (Victim Impact Panels) where victims impact offenders with gory stories, photos, and threats of punishments and loss of freedom, hoping this message will deter DWIs. It is remarkable that although the VIP message is considered a primary DWI intervention, yet no studies have investigated VIP message effects. VIP message effects, their persistence and decay, are chronicled here over the course of 12 years. This study extends an empirical investigation of VIPs, conducted by Woodall, Delaney, Rogers, and Wheeler (2007) (n = 833) during 1994-1996. At 2 years, these researchers found MADD VIP participants' recidivism rates were 30% higher than their DWI School comparison group, trending toward significance at p = .0583. This study supports those results as significant at 12 years. As an extension, it investigates whether reactance theory explains VIP message effects failure. Reactance theory research, a subset of message effects research, explains how emotional, confrontational, and threatening messages induce psychological reactance in the mind of the message receiver, who then seeks to preserve his or her sense of freedom by behaving contrarily (Brehm, 1966). Hierarchically intensifying effects of these theoretical reactance antecedents are studied here in an unusual manner, as they occur in vivo, in real life. The same intervention was observed to have different effects depending on prior conditions and demographics. The emotional high-threat, high-confrontation MADD VIP message coincided with significantly shorter time to recidivism (p = .009, d = 1.64) and significantly higher number of subsequent arrests (p < .0001, d = 1.64) among recent prior offenders, and those with no priors under age 30 (p = .01, d = 0.35). Younger offenders may be associated with more iconoclastic behavior than older offenders (Beirness & Simpson, 1997; Greenberg, 2005; NHTSA, 2008), partially explaining the under-30 age effect. This study furthers persuasive message design as a science and suggests a message-based approach to intervention analysis. There was no effect when MADD VIP was analyzed simply as an intervention. However, there were highly significant effect sizes when the same MADD VIP intervention was analyzed as a message. This study concludes by offering MADD VIP best practice recommendations. Advisors/Committee Members: Woodall, W. Gill, Schuetz, Janice, Rivera, Mario A., McDermott, Virginia, Delaney, Harold.

Subjects/Keywords: Victim Impact panels; MADD; message effects; randomized trial; effect size; drunk driving; DWI; efficacy trial; method problems; methodological problems; communication theory; theory building; rhetorical analysis; triangulation; drunk driving; interventions; covariates; ANOVA; ANCOVA; survival analysis; message context; message content; message function; message intensity; message frequency; message metrics; message pathos; pathos; message decay; decay rate; message decay rate; intent to persuade; persuasion; confrontation; shame; shaming; public shaming; public censure; forewarning; perceived threat; reactance theory; assumptions; sampling error; recruitment error; non-adherence to condition; random assignment error; factorial design; operationalization; theory construct operationalization; methods informed by literature; methodological symbiosis; questionnaire reliability and validity; secondary data sources; public arrest record; public data; covariate operationalization; reactance constructs; content analysis; theme analysis; prior arrest; censored cases; QSR N6; SPSS; Excel; limitations; under-identification; attrition; population attrition; bimodal distribution; dichotomous variables; data splitting; discretizing data; time to recidivism; subsequent arrests; emotional change; emotion score; outliers; reactance antecedent; message dose; message dosage; treatment fidelity; assess treatment fidelity; predictor variables; controlling variables; demographic covariate; demographic predictor; confirmation bias; data bias; interaction effect; treatment effect; message design; fear appeal; message strength; anger; survival analysis; time dependence; mixed methods; study design; message standardization; internal validity; hard data; hard end-point data; marginal sample size; observed variables; intervening factors; intervening variables; sample size; in vivo; hierarchy of effects; emotional threat; older offenders; young offenders; intervention analysis; message-based approach; best practices; DWI intervention; DWI treatment; prior conditions; iconoclast; Drunks Against MADD Mothers; resistance; message design science

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Medina, U. E. (2010). MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of New Mexico. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1928/12395

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Medina, Una E. “MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL.” 2010. Doctoral Dissertation, University of New Mexico. Accessed December 09, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/1928/12395.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Medina, Una E. “MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL.” 2010. Web. 09 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Medina UE. MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of New Mexico; 2010. [cited 2019 Dec 09]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/12395.

Council of Science Editors:

Medina UE. MADD MESSAGE EFFECTS: A TWELVE-YEAR RANDOMIZED TRIAL. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of New Mexico; 2010. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/12395

2. Godoy, Eduardo Paciência. Desenvolvimento de sistemas de controle via rede (NCS) para aplicações em redes com protocolo CAN.

Degree: PhD, Manufatura, 2011, University of São Paulo

Sistema de controle via rede (NCS) é um sistema de controle distribuído onde os sensores, atuadores e controladores estão alocados fisicamente em locais separados e são conectados através de uma rede de comunicação industrial. O NCS representa a evolução das arquiteturas de controle em rede, fornecendo maior modularidade e descentralização do controle, facilidade de diagnóstico e manutenção e menor custo. O desafio no desenvolvimento de um NCS é contornar os efeitos degenerativos causados por fatores que afetam o seu desempenho e estabilidade. Entre estes fatores estão o período de amostragem dos sinais, a perda de informações transmitidas na rede e os atrasos de comunicação. Buscando superar este desafio, este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de NCS para aplicações em redes CAN baseado no uso da simulação e na proposta de uma estratégia de controle. A utilização de ferramentas de simulação de NCS, selecionadas através de um estudo comparativo e qualitativo, permitiu analisar o impacto de fatores degenerativos no desempenho de controle e estabilidade de NCS. Essa análise por simulação permitiu evidenciar o período de amostragem como o fator de maior influência para o projeto de NCS em redes CAN. Para superar o problema do período de amostragem, uma estratégia de controle adaptativo foi proposta. Essa estratégia usa informações de saída do NCS para automaticamente adaptar o período de amostragem das mensagens, garantindo desempenho de controle e diminuindo significativamente a ocupação da rede CAN. Experimentos realizados em uma plataforma de pesquisa sobre NCS demonstraram a confiabilidade e robustez do uso da estratégia de controle adaptativo, mesmo em condições extremas de operação da rede CAN. Os experimentos também permitiram comprovar a eficácia de uma técnica de identificação de NCS desenvolvida, que apresenta a vantagem de utilizar informações disponíveis na rede para obtenção de um modelo do NCS com precisão aceitável.

Networked control system (NCS) is a distributed control system where the sensors, actuators and controllers are physically separated and connected through an industrial communication network. The NCS represents the evolution of networked control architectures providing greater modularity and control decentralization, maintenance and diagnosis ease and lower cost of implementation. The challenge in the development of NCS is to overcome the degenerative effects of factors which affect its performance and stability. Among these factors are the sampling time, the loss of information on the network and the network delays. Aiming to overcome this challenge, this work presents the development of NCS for applications in CAN-Based networks based on the simulation use and in a control strategy proposal. The use NCS simulation tools, selected by a comparative and qualitative study, allowed to analyze the impact of degrading factors in the NCS control performance and stability. This analysis using simulation highlighted the message sampling time as factor with the biggest influence for the design of…

Advisors/Committee Members: Porto, Arthur Jose Vieira.

Subjects/Keywords: Adaptive control; CAN protocol; Controle adaptativo; Ferramentas de simulação; Message sampling time; Model identification technique; Networked control system - NCS; Período de amostragem; Redes CAN; Simulation tools; Sistemas de controle via redes - NCS; Técnica de identificação

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Godoy, E. P. (2011). Desenvolvimento de sistemas de controle via rede (NCS) para aplicações em redes com protocolo CAN. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of São Paulo. Retrieved from http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/18/18145/tde-11052011-094711/ ;

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Godoy, Eduardo Paciência. “Desenvolvimento de sistemas de controle via rede (NCS) para aplicações em redes com protocolo CAN.” 2011. Doctoral Dissertation, University of São Paulo. Accessed December 09, 2019. http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/18/18145/tde-11052011-094711/ ;.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Godoy, Eduardo Paciência. “Desenvolvimento de sistemas de controle via rede (NCS) para aplicações em redes com protocolo CAN.” 2011. Web. 09 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Godoy EP. Desenvolvimento de sistemas de controle via rede (NCS) para aplicações em redes com protocolo CAN. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of São Paulo; 2011. [cited 2019 Dec 09]. Available from: http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/18/18145/tde-11052011-094711/ ;.

Council of Science Editors:

Godoy EP. Desenvolvimento de sistemas de controle via rede (NCS) para aplicações em redes com protocolo CAN. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of São Paulo; 2011. Available from: http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/18/18145/tde-11052011-094711/ ;


Delft University of Technology

3. Anitori, L. Compressive Sensing and Fast Simulations: Applications to Radar Detection.

Degree: 2012, Delft University of Technology

In most modern high-resolution multi-channel radar systems one of the major problems to deal with is the huge amount of data to be acquired, processed and/or stored. But why do we need all these data? According to the well known Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, real signals have to be sampled at at least twice the signal bandwidth to prevent ambiguities. Therefore, sampling of very wide bandwidths may require Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) hardware that is unavailable or very expensive; especially in multi-channel systems, the cost and power consumption can become critical factors. In applications involving interleaving of radar modes in time or space (antenna aperture), multi-function operation often leads to conflicting requirements on sampling rates in both time and spatial domains. So while, on one hand, the increased number of degrees of freedom improves the system performance, on the other hand it puts a significant burden on both the off-line analysis and performance evaluation of sophisticated detectors, and on the real time acquisition and processing. For example, space-time adaptive processing algorithms significantly enhance the detection of targets buried in noise, clutter and jamming. However, evaluating the optimal filter weights is an immense computational load when simulating such detectors in the design phase as well as in real time implementation. In some cases, measurement time may also be a constraint, as in 3D radar imaging for airport security inspection of passengers. Conventional acquisition of a full 3D high resolution image requires a measurement time that can be unacceptable in this situation. In this thesis we investigate sampling methods that can deal with the problems of processing complexity as well as analysis (or performance evaluation) extremely efficiently by reducing the required amount of samples. By cleverly using properties of the signals or random variables involved, the considered techniques, namely Compressive Sensing (CS) and Importance Sampling (IS), both alleviate the burden related to data handling in complex radar detectors. These methods, although very different in nature, provide an alternative to classical sampling techniques. The first, compressive sensing, is based on a revolutionary acquisition and processing theory that enables reconstruction of sparse signals from a set of measurements sampled at a much lower rate than required by the Nyquist-Shannon theorem. This results in both shorter acquisition time and reduced amount of data. The second, importance sampling, has roots in statistical physics and represents a fast and effective method for the design and analysis of detectors whose performance have to be evaluated by simulations. By efficiently sampling the underlying probability density function, importance sampling provides a very fast alternative to conventional Monte Carlo simulation. The first part of the thesis deals with the design and analysis of adaptive detectors for compressive sensing based radars. In systems using compressive sensing, the… Advisors/Committee Members: Hoogeboom, P..

Subjects/Keywords: compressive sensing; compressed sensing; compressive sampling; importance sampling; fast simulations; Monte Carlo; radar; detection; Approximate Message Passing; Complex Aprroximate Message Passing; Constant False Alarm Rate; Space Time Adaptive Processing; L1-norm; Receiver Operating Characteristic

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Anitori, L. (2012). Compressive Sensing and Fast Simulations: Applications to Radar Detection. (Doctoral Dissertation). Delft University of Technology. Retrieved from http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306 ; urn:NBN:nl:ui:24-uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306 ; urn:NBN:nl:ui:24-uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306 ; http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Anitori, L. “Compressive Sensing and Fast Simulations: Applications to Radar Detection.” 2012. Doctoral Dissertation, Delft University of Technology. Accessed December 09, 2019. http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306 ; urn:NBN:nl:ui:24-uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306 ; urn:NBN:nl:ui:24-uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306 ; http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Anitori, L. “Compressive Sensing and Fast Simulations: Applications to Radar Detection.” 2012. Web. 09 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Anitori L. Compressive Sensing and Fast Simulations: Applications to Radar Detection. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Delft University of Technology; 2012. [cited 2019 Dec 09]. Available from: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306 ; urn:NBN:nl:ui:24-uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306 ; urn:NBN:nl:ui:24-uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306 ; http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306.

Council of Science Editors:

Anitori L. Compressive Sensing and Fast Simulations: Applications to Radar Detection. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Delft University of Technology; 2012. Available from: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306 ; urn:NBN:nl:ui:24-uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306 ; urn:NBN:nl:ui:24-uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306 ; http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:176b3496-dee3-4326-8e0f-277192a03306

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