Effects of melatonin on the histomorphometry of the pancreas, liver and kidney of rats on antiretroviral treatment.
Degree: MSc, Biomedical Sciences, 2017, Stellenbosch University
ENGLISH ABSTRACT : The administration of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV positive patients has shown to cause side histologically observable effects in the pancreas, liver and kidneys. These conditions include acute pancreatitis, cellular injury, oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, which presents as inflammation and cellular injury. Melatonin has been successful in the prevention and reduction of inflammatory markers, oxidative stress and cellular damage, and has been observed as a treatment option in various conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the observable morphometric changes caused by cART as well as the potential therapeutic effects of melatonin on the pancreas, liver and kidney of the control (C/ART-), cART (C/ART+), melatonin (C/M+) and cART and melatonin (ART+/M+) groups in the absence of HIV in a rat model.
Tissue samples (N=40) of the ventral part of the pancreas, the median lobe of the liver and the right kidney male Wistar rats were collected. The blood samples (n=37) were collected from the abdominal aorta after euthanasia. Samples of the pancreas, liver and kidney were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and evaluated for histopathology. The pancreas was labelled with anti-insulin and anti-glucagon to determine α- and β-cell areas in the pancreatic islets. Blood samples were collected for liver enzyme tests to evaluate hepatotoxicity. The kidneys were stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and the area, perimeter, diameter and radius of 30 renal corpuscles, with their associated glomeruli and 90 proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs) were measured per rat.
The pancreas, liver and kidney showed no significant histologically observable changes in histology. The mean islets per mm2 in the pancreas was significantly higher in the C/M- group than in the C/ART- and ART+/M+ groups. Melatonin stimulated the abundance of pancreatic islets and thus indirectly the availability of α-cells. The haemoglobin value in the C/ART+ group was significantly higher than in the C/ART- group, which indicates that the mechanism in which cART increases serum haemoglobin is possibly still active in the absence of immune compromise. The C/M+ group showed a decrease in serum lipaemia compared to the C/ART- group, due to melatonin’s its inhibitory effect on peroxidation of cellular lipids by free radicals. In the kidneys, all parameters of the renal corpuscle were significantly lower in the C/ART+ and C/M+ groups compared to the C/ART- group. In the glomeruli, some parameters were significantly lower in the C/ART+ group compared to the C/ART-, C/M+ and ART+/M+ groups. The renal space was significantly decreased in the C/ART+, C/M+ and ART+/M+ groups. All parameters of the PCTs were significantly decreased in the C/ART+ group compared to the C/ART- group. All the components of the nephron were affected by cART, which may have caused tubular dysfunction, cellular damage and a decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In conclusion, cART and melatonin each affected the…
Advisors/Committee Members: Kotze, Sanet Henriëtte, Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept. of Biomedical Sciences. Division Anatomy and Histology.
Subjects/Keywords: Rats – Antiretroviral treatment; UCTD; Histology, Pathological; Immunohistochemistry; Melatonin – Side effects; Rats as laboratory animals
to Zotero / EndNote / Reference
APA (6th Edition):
Truter, D. (2017). Effects of melatonin on the histomorphometry of the pancreas, liver and kidney of rats on antiretroviral treatment. (Masters Thesis). Stellenbosch University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/102796
Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):
Truter, Danelle. “Effects of melatonin on the histomorphometry of the pancreas, liver and kidney of rats on antiretroviral treatment.” 2017. Masters Thesis, Stellenbosch University. Accessed December 11, 2019.
MLA Handbook (7th Edition):
Truter, Danelle. “Effects of melatonin on the histomorphometry of the pancreas, liver and kidney of rats on antiretroviral treatment.” 2017. Web. 11 Dec 2019.
Truter D. Effects of melatonin on the histomorphometry of the pancreas, liver and kidney of rats on antiretroviral treatment. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Stellenbosch University; 2017. [cited 2019 Dec 11].
Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/102796.
Council of Science Editors:
Truter D. Effects of melatonin on the histomorphometry of the pancreas, liver and kidney of rats on antiretroviral treatment. [Masters Thesis]. Stellenbosch University; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/102796