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Indian Institute of Science

1. Bharati, Binod Kumar. Molecular Characterization c-di-GMP Signalling In Mycobacterium Smegmatis.

Degree: 2012, Indian Institute of Science

Bacterial stationary phase is an interesting biological system to study, as the organism undergoes several metabolic changes during this period and new molecules are generated to support its survival. The stationary phase of mycobacteria has been extensively studied since the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. The stationary phase of mycobacteria adds further complication as many antibacterial drugs become less effective. The M. tuberculosis infects the alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells or monocytes recruited from peripheral blood. Macrophages are supposed to provide an initial barrier against the bacterial infection, but fails. Mycobacteria have evolved several strategies to survive and set up an initial residence within these cells and grow actively inside the host. The host immune system tries to limit the bacterial growth and confines the organism to a latent state in which the organism can persist indefinitely, known as granuloma stage. During latency or granuloma stage mycobacteria can retain the ability to resume the growth in the future. Mycobacteria must adapt to a highly dynamic and challenging environment because the interior environment of granuloma is devoid of or in low level of oxygen, depleted nutrient, high carbon dioxide, and possess increased levels of aliphatic organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes. The survival of a bacterium in less nutrient supply or in depleted oxygen is important for its long-¬term persistence inside the host under harsh environmental conditions. Mycobacterium smegmatis is the closest non-¬pathogenic homologue of M. tuberculosis, and has been used widely as a model system to study gene regulation under such conditions. In these harsh environmental conditions bacteria need to sense the external environment to modulate their gene expression. More importantly, each individual cell should communicate with its neighbours, and the response takes place in a concerted manner, which is termed as quorum sensing. Thus, the quorum sensing is a cell-¬cell signaling process that allow the bacteria to monitor the presence of other bacteria in their surroundings by producing and responding to small signaling molecules, which are known as autoinducers. It is a density dependent phenomenon and regulates the expression of the genes in response to fluctuation in cell¬-population density. A minimum threshold level of autoinducers is necessary to detect the signal and respond to it. Quorum sensing enables bacteria to behave like multicellular organisms and controls group activities like biofilm formation, sporulation, bioluminescence, virulence, and pigment production, etc (Bassler, 1999; Camilli & Bassler, 2006; Fuqua et al., 1996; Miller & Bassler, 2001). In Gram-¬negative bacteria, small-¬molecules, which are known as autoinducers are produced. They are acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), which are derived from S¬adenosyl methionine (SAM) and particular fatty acyl carrier protein by LuxI¬type AHL synthases (Fuqua et al., 1996). In Gram-¬positive… Advisors/Committee Members: Chatterji, Dipankar.

Subjects/Keywords: Protein Transduction - Tuberculosis; c-di-GMP Signalling; Mycobacterium Smegmatis; Mycobacteria - Quorum Sensing; MSMEG-2196 Protein; MSDGC-1 Protein; Glycolipids; M. tuberculosis; M. smegmatis; Arabinofuranoside; Biochemistry

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Bharati, B. K. (2012). Molecular Characterization c-di-GMP Signalling In Mycobacterium Smegmatis. (Thesis). Indian Institute of Science. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2345

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Bharati, Binod Kumar. “Molecular Characterization c-di-GMP Signalling In Mycobacterium Smegmatis.” 2012. Thesis, Indian Institute of Science. Accessed November 11, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2345.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Bharati, Binod Kumar. “Molecular Characterization c-di-GMP Signalling In Mycobacterium Smegmatis.” 2012. Web. 11 Nov 2019.

Vancouver:

Bharati BK. Molecular Characterization c-di-GMP Signalling In Mycobacterium Smegmatis. [Internet] [Thesis]. Indian Institute of Science; 2012. [cited 2019 Nov 11]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2345.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Bharati BK. Molecular Characterization c-di-GMP Signalling In Mycobacterium Smegmatis. [Thesis]. Indian Institute of Science; 2012. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2345

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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