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University of California – Berkeley

1. Harry, Katherine Joann. Lithium dendrite growth through solid polymer electrolyte membranes.

Degree: Materials Science & Engineering, 2016, University of California – Berkeley

The next generation of rechargeable batteries must have significantly improved gravimetric and volumetric energy densities while maintaining a long cycle life and a low risk of catastrophic failure. Replacing the conventional graphite anode in a lithium ion battery with lithium foil increases the theoretical energy density of the battery by more than 40%. Furthermore, there is significant interest within the scientific community on new cathode chemistries, like sulfur and air, that presume the use of a lithium metal anode to achieve theoretical energy densities as high as 5217 W·h/kg. However, lithium metal is highly unstable toward traditional liquid electrolytes like ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate. The solid electrolyte interphase that forms between lithium metal and these liquid electrolytes is brittle which causes a highly irregular current distribution at the anode, resulting in the formation of lithium metal protrusions. Ionic current concentrates at these protrusions leading to the formation of lithium dendrites that propagate through the electrolyte as the battery is charged, causing it to fail by short-circuit. The rapid release of energy during this short-circuit event can result in catastrophic cell failure.Polymer electrolytes are promising alternatives to traditional liquid electrolytes because they form a stable, elastomeric interface with lithium metal. Additionally, polymer electrolytes are significantly less flammable than their liquid electrolyte counterparts. The prototypical polymer electrolyte is poly(ethylene oxide). Unfortunately, when lithium anodes are used with a poly(ethylene oxide) electrolyte, lithium dendrites still form and cause premature battery failure. Theoretically, an electrolyte with a shear modulus twice that of lithium metal could eliminate the formation of lithium dendrites entirely. While a shear modulus of this magnitude is difficult to achieve with polymer electrolytes, we can greatly enhance the modulus of our electrolytes by covalently bonding the rubbery poly(ethylene oxide) to a glassy polystyrene chain. The block copolymer phase separates into a lamellar morphology yielding co-continuous nanoscale domains of poly(ethylene oxide), for ionic conduction, and polystyrene, for mechanical rigidity. On the macroscale, the electrolyte membrane is a tough free-standing film, while on the nanoscale, ions are transported through the liquid-like poly(ethylene oxide) domains.Little is known about the formation of lithium dendrites from stiff polymer electrolyte membranes given the experimental challenges associated with imaging lithium metal. The objective of this dissertation is to strengthen our understanding of the influence of the electrolyte modulus on the formation and growth of lithium dendrites from lithium metal anodes. This understanding will help us design electrolytes that have the potential to more fully suppress the formation of dendrites yielding high energy density batteries that operate safely and have a long cycle life.Synchrotron hard X-ray…

Subjects/Keywords: Materials Science; Chemical engineering; Battery; Block copolymer electrolyte; Lithium dendrite; Lithium globule; Solid polymer electrolyte; X-ray microtomography

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Harry, K. J. (2016). Lithium dendrite growth through solid polymer electrolyte membranes. (Thesis). University of California – Berkeley. Retrieved from http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/9xs390n4

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Harry, Katherine Joann. “Lithium dendrite growth through solid polymer electrolyte membranes.” 2016. Thesis, University of California – Berkeley. Accessed September 29, 2020. http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/9xs390n4.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Harry, Katherine Joann. “Lithium dendrite growth through solid polymer electrolyte membranes.” 2016. Web. 29 Sep 2020.

Vancouver:

Harry KJ. Lithium dendrite growth through solid polymer electrolyte membranes. [Internet] [Thesis]. University of California – Berkeley; 2016. [cited 2020 Sep 29]. Available from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/9xs390n4.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Harry KJ. Lithium dendrite growth through solid polymer electrolyte membranes. [Thesis]. University of California – Berkeley; 2016. Available from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/9xs390n4

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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