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You searched for subject:(Jaw reflex). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of Dundee

1. Atassi, Mounir. Mechanical monitoring of inhibitory jaw reflexes in health and simulated dysfunction.

Degree: PhD, 2014, University of Dundee

Objectives: Previous studies in the Oral Neurophysiology Laboratories in Dundee have defined the electromyographic properties of the inhibitory jaw reflex that can be evoked in human subjects by electrical stimulation of the lip. This reflex, in contrast with the more widely studied biphasic inhibitory reflexes evoked by stimulation of intra-oral nerves, consists of just a single phase of inhibition and usually requires the application of stimuli which excite nociceptive nerves. The aims of the present studies were to define the mechanical manifestations of this reflex in the form of changes in biting forces, and to investigate whether the mechanical manifestation of the inhibitory jaw reflex evoked by stimulation of the human upper lip, can be modulated by experimentally-controlled conditions that mimic symptoms of a myogenous temporomandibular disorder. Methods: Three series of experiments were performed on 49 volunteer subjects in total. The experiments involved recording bite forces between the anterior teeth and electromyograms (EMGs) from the masseter muscles. Transcutaneous electrical stimuli were applied to the hairy skin of upper lip while the subjects maintained a biting force of around 50N with the aid of visual feedback. In the first series of experiments, a range of electrical stimuli below and above the nociceptive threshold was delivered. In the second set of experiments, double stimuli with a range of different inter-stimulus intervals were applied. Finally in a third series of experiments, electrical stimulation was repeated before, immediately after, and 5 and 10 minutes following a 3-minute accelerated chewing task. This task consisted of chewing 1.5g of a tough chewing gum at 1.5 times the subject’s natural chewing rate and in 18 cases, muscle fatigue and/or pain were reported by the subjects. Results: Following stimulation at intensities that were described as sharp or painful, all the subjects showed both a suppression of the masseter EMG and a reduction of biting force. When analysing the maximum responses in each subject, the mean reduction in the EMG inhibition was to 15.78 ± 14.4% and 10.39 ± 7.92% of the baseline (for the ipsi- and contra-lateral EMGs respectively), whereas the biting force was reduced only to 83.98 ± 11.04% of baseline (+ S.D.). The latencies of onset of these responses were: 38.17 ± 3.58ms, 38.97 ± 4.49ms and 51.83 ± 6.23ms respectively. The response observed in the force record was weaker than in that observed in either EMG (Paired t tests, P < 0.005 in both cases). When applying double stimuli, it was found that the prolongation of the EMG inhibitory jaw reflex (to 144.70 ± 46.93% of the control level) evoked by double stimulation of the upper lip (with a 10 ms inter-stimulus interval) resulted in a greater increase in the depth of the accompanied relaxation (to 223.63 ± 70.88% of that seen in the control responses) compared to a relatively smaller increase in the duration of the relaxation (to 128.32 ± 27.23% of that seen in the control responses). Following the…

Subjects/Keywords: 617.6; Jaw reflex; TMD; Pain; Bite force; Temporomandibular Disorders; Masseter muscle; Mastication

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APA (6th Edition):

Atassi, M. (2014). Mechanical monitoring of inhibitory jaw reflexes in health and simulated dysfunction. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Dundee. Retrieved from https://discovery.dundee.ac.uk/en/studentTheses/abca297e-8951-447b-8c9e-0bb529d211a9 ; https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.642901

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Atassi, Mounir. “Mechanical monitoring of inhibitory jaw reflexes in health and simulated dysfunction.” 2014. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Dundee. Accessed January 24, 2021. https://discovery.dundee.ac.uk/en/studentTheses/abca297e-8951-447b-8c9e-0bb529d211a9 ; https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.642901.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Atassi, Mounir. “Mechanical monitoring of inhibitory jaw reflexes in health and simulated dysfunction.” 2014. Web. 24 Jan 2021.

Vancouver:

Atassi M. Mechanical monitoring of inhibitory jaw reflexes in health and simulated dysfunction. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Dundee; 2014. [cited 2021 Jan 24]. Available from: https://discovery.dundee.ac.uk/en/studentTheses/abca297e-8951-447b-8c9e-0bb529d211a9 ; https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.642901.

Council of Science Editors:

Atassi M. Mechanical monitoring of inhibitory jaw reflexes in health and simulated dysfunction. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Dundee; 2014. Available from: https://discovery.dundee.ac.uk/en/studentTheses/abca297e-8951-447b-8c9e-0bb529d211a9 ; https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.642901


New Jersey Institute of Technology

2. Erdogan, Ferhat. Submandibular mechanical stimulation of upper airway muscles to treat obstructive sleep apnea.

Degree: PhD, Biomedical Engineering, 2018, New Jersey Institute of Technology

The extrinsic tongue muscles are activated in coordination with pharyngeal muscles to keep a patent airway during respiration in wakefulness and sleep. The activity of genioglossus, the primary tongue-protruding muscle playing an important role in this coordination, is known to be modulated by several reflex pathways mediated through the mechanoreceptors of the upper airways. The main objective is to investigate the effectiveness of activating these reflex pathways with mechanical stimulations, for the long-term goal of improving the upper airway patency during disordered breathing in sleep. The genioglossus response is examined during mandibular and sub-mandibular mechanical stimulations in healthy subjects during wakefulness. The genioglossus activity is recorded with custom-made sublingual EMG electrode molded out of silicone. Mechanical vibrations are applied to the lower jaw at 8 and 12 Hz with an amplitude of 5 mm in the first experiment, and to the sub-mandibular area at three different intensities (0.2-0.9 mm, 21-33 Hz) in the second experiment. The effects of sub-mandibular mechanical vibrations are also investigated in severe obstructive sleep apnea patients during a whole night sleep study. The major findings of this study are that the genioglossus reflexively responds to the mechanical vibrations applied to the mandible and the sub-mandibular skin surface in healthy subjects during wakefulness and the sub-mandibular stimulations during sleep terminate the apnea earlier and decrease the level of hypoxia with smaller micro arousals. Advisors/Committee Members: Mesut Sahin, Sergei Adamovich, Judy Deutsch.

Subjects/Keywords: Genioglossus; Jaw tongue reflex; Obstructive sleep apnea; Stimulation; Tonic vibration reflex; Upper airway; Bioimaging and Biomedical Optics; Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering; Neurosciences

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APA (6th Edition):

Erdogan, F. (2018). Submandibular mechanical stimulation of upper airway muscles to treat obstructive sleep apnea. (Doctoral Dissertation). New Jersey Institute of Technology. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.njit.edu/dissertations/1412

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Erdogan, Ferhat. “Submandibular mechanical stimulation of upper airway muscles to treat obstructive sleep apnea.” 2018. Doctoral Dissertation, New Jersey Institute of Technology. Accessed January 24, 2021. https://digitalcommons.njit.edu/dissertations/1412.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Erdogan, Ferhat. “Submandibular mechanical stimulation of upper airway muscles to treat obstructive sleep apnea.” 2018. Web. 24 Jan 2021.

Vancouver:

Erdogan F. Submandibular mechanical stimulation of upper airway muscles to treat obstructive sleep apnea. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. New Jersey Institute of Technology; 2018. [cited 2021 Jan 24]. Available from: https://digitalcommons.njit.edu/dissertations/1412.

Council of Science Editors:

Erdogan F. Submandibular mechanical stimulation of upper airway muscles to treat obstructive sleep apnea. [Doctoral Dissertation]. New Jersey Institute of Technology; 2018. Available from: https://digitalcommons.njit.edu/dissertations/1412

3. Κοσιώνη, Αναστασία. Η επίδραση του φύλου, της ηλικίας και της χρήσης ολικών οδοντοστοιχιών στο μυοτατικό αντανακλαστικό και στην περίοδο σιγής του μασητήρα: ηλεκτρομυογραφική μελέτη.

Degree: 1994, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (ΕΚΠΑ)

The aim of the present study was to investigate any variations in the masseteric jaw-jerk reflex and the silent period related to gender, age and rehabilitation with complete dentures. Surface electromyographic recordings were obtained after chin taps from the masseter muscle of the preferred chewing side, during mandibular rest and at moderate intercuspal clenching (40% of the individual maximum clenching masseteric RMS activity), using a computerized recording and analysis system. The reflexes were elicited in 22 younger dentate adults, 22 older dentate adults, 22 older experienced complete denture wearers and seven older subjects who had been fitted with new complete dentures one to three weeks previously. In the first three groups gender distribution was equal. The within and between-session reproducibility of the jaw- jerk at rest using the present methodology, was tested in five young females and found satisfactory. During intercuspal clenching, the occurrence of the jaw-jerk was reduced compared to the rest values in all groups except for the inexperienced denture wearers. This contrast was smaller in the experienced denture wearers. It was suggested that the simultaneous activation of the periodontal ligament receptors may occasionally inhibit the masseteric monosynaptic excitation. In the denture wearers a potential weaker inhibitory effect of the mucosal mechanoreceptors was speculated. Moreover when clenching, the amplitudes were higher and the latencies shorter (p<0.05). The recorded silent period in all groups fell into four distinctive patterns: one simple and three combined, including an early and a late phase of depression. Variation in the silent period duration was not significant between the different subject groups (p>0.05).The duration was however affected by the silent period type (p<0.05), thus by the measuring technique. In the female subjects in all groups, a systematic tendency was observed towards shorter latencies in the jaw-jerk and the early silent period, and towards increased amplitudes of the jaw-jerk, particularly at rest. Increased gender variation was observed in the denture wearers. However those differences were usually not statistically significant. The age-related variation in the jaw-jerk and the silent period was investigated in 22 younger and in 22 older dentate adults. In the older participants, the occurrence of the jaw-jerk was reduced, the latency of the jaw-jerk at rest and the latency of the early silent period were increased and the amplitude of the jaw-jerk at rest was diminished (p<0.05). The differences observed were related to the age changes in the various elements of the responsible reflex arcs, including the sense organs, the muscles, the peripheral nerves and the central nervous system. The effect of denture wearing on the jaw-jerk and the silent period was investigated in 22 older dentate subjects and in 22 older experienced denture wearers. Both reflexes were present in the denture wearers. In the denture subjects the occurrence of the jaw-jerk, the duration…

Subjects/Keywords: Ηλεκτρομυογραφία; Μυοτατικό αντανακλαστικό; Μασητήρας μυς; Περίοδος σιγής; Ηλικία; Φύλο; Οδοντοστοιχίες; Προσαρμογή; Electromyography; Jaw-jerk reflex; Masseter muscle; Silent period; Age; Gender; Dentures; Adaptation

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Κοσιώνη, . . (1994). Η επίδραση του φύλου, της ηλικίας και της χρήσης ολικών οδοντοστοιχιών στο μυοτατικό αντανακλαστικό και στην περίοδο σιγής του μασητήρα: ηλεκτρομυογραφική μελέτη. (Thesis). National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (ΕΚΠΑ). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10442/hedi/25161

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Κοσιώνη, Αναστασία. “Η επίδραση του φύλου, της ηλικίας και της χρήσης ολικών οδοντοστοιχιών στο μυοτατικό αντανακλαστικό και στην περίοδο σιγής του μασητήρα: ηλεκτρομυογραφική μελέτη.” 1994. Thesis, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (ΕΚΠΑ). Accessed January 24, 2021. http://hdl.handle.net/10442/hedi/25161.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Κοσιώνη, Αναστασία. “Η επίδραση του φύλου, της ηλικίας και της χρήσης ολικών οδοντοστοιχιών στο μυοτατικό αντανακλαστικό και στην περίοδο σιγής του μασητήρα: ηλεκτρομυογραφική μελέτη.” 1994. Web. 24 Jan 2021.

Vancouver:

Κοσιώνη . Η επίδραση του φύλου, της ηλικίας και της χρήσης ολικών οδοντοστοιχιών στο μυοτατικό αντανακλαστικό και στην περίοδο σιγής του μασητήρα: ηλεκτρομυογραφική μελέτη. [Internet] [Thesis]. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (ΕΚΠΑ); 1994. [cited 2021 Jan 24]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10442/hedi/25161.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Κοσιώνη . Η επίδραση του φύλου, της ηλικίας και της χρήσης ολικών οδοντοστοιχιών στο μυοτατικό αντανακλαστικό και στην περίοδο σιγής του μασητήρα: ηλεκτρομυογραφική μελέτη. [Thesis]. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens; Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών (ΕΚΠΑ); 1994. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10442/hedi/25161

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

.