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You searched for subject:(Insect nutritional ecology). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Texas A&M University

1. Lenhart, Paul Alvarado. Nutrient Niches: an Investigation of Nutritional Ecology in a Generalist Herbivore Community.

Degree: PhD, Entomology, 2014, Texas A&M University

Understanding how diversity is maintained is a classic question in ecology. A diverse group of organisms can often be found utilizing the same resource. For example, in grasslands there are communities of grasshoppers containing many generalist species with overlapping diets that are likely competing for resources. To explore how species that overlap in host plant use can coexist, I investigated a recent hypothesis in nutritional ecology that species-specific macronutrient requirements in generalist insect herbivores could represent different nutrient niches. As a model system I used a community of grasshoppers in Central Texas. First, I surveyed variation in plant macronutrient content and compared this data to the grasshopper community. By assaying levels of digestible protein and carbohydrate in abundant forbs and grasses at different sites, I produced a ‘nutrient landscape’ available to foraging herbivores and found significant correlations between plant nutrients and grasshopper abundance. To further explore the role of plant macronutrient shifts in controlling grasshopper populations, I manipulated water availability in plots of grassland during a severe drought. Total grasshopper density and diversity were lower in water-stressed plots despite previous observations of drought-induced outbreaks. The effect of water stressed plants on grasshoppers depended on their diet, and how different plant groups responded to water stress. I then compared host plant use to macronutrient requirements among 11 dominant grasshopper species. I found differences associated with functional diet groupings. I also found intake differences among mixed-feeders with highly overlapping diets, which could potentially represent nutrient niches. Finally, I tested the nutrient niche hypothesis in a greenhouse competition experiment using three species of generalist grasshoppers with overlapping diets. I found mixed support for the nutrient niche hypothesis. Body size was more important for predicting competitive outcomes. Understanding community-wide patterns of nutrient regulation in insect herbivores is in its infancy. While the plant nutrient landscape plays a large role in consumer populations, we are far from understanding how species-specific nutrient regulation differences might impact communities. Perhaps the potential effects of nutrient intake differences are inconsequential next to other ecological factors. Future comparative studies should determine what evolutionary factors shape nutrient requirements. Advisors/Committee Members: Eubanks, Micky D (advisor), Behmer, Spencer T (advisor), Medina, Raul F (committee member), Rogers, William E (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: grasshopper; nutrients; insect herbivore; geometric framework; community ecology; nutritional ecology; grassland

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Lenhart, P. A. (2014). Nutrient Niches: an Investigation of Nutritional Ecology in a Generalist Herbivore Community. (Doctoral Dissertation). Texas A&M University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/152808

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Lenhart, Paul Alvarado. “Nutrient Niches: an Investigation of Nutritional Ecology in a Generalist Herbivore Community.” 2014. Doctoral Dissertation, Texas A&M University. Accessed August 14, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/152808.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Lenhart, Paul Alvarado. “Nutrient Niches: an Investigation of Nutritional Ecology in a Generalist Herbivore Community.” 2014. Web. 14 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Lenhart PA. Nutrient Niches: an Investigation of Nutritional Ecology in a Generalist Herbivore Community. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Texas A&M University; 2014. [cited 2020 Aug 14]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/152808.

Council of Science Editors:

Lenhart PA. Nutrient Niches: an Investigation of Nutritional Ecology in a Generalist Herbivore Community. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Texas A&M University; 2014. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/152808


Universidade de Brasília

2. Maria Alice de Medeiros. Papel da biodiversidade no manejo da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

Degree: 2007, Universidade de Brasília

A diversificação ambiental promovida pelas espécies vegetais em agroecossistemas favorecem a estruturação de comunidades de insetos mais ricas e diversificadas que controlam a dinâmica populacional de espécies herbívoras. Dentro da abordagem agroecológica, a diversificação ambiental é um dos componentes que podem ser manejados para suprimir as populações de insetos pragas. O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar a flutuação populacional da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) nos sistemas orgânico e convencional para verificar se os danos causados pela traça-do-tomateiro são influenciados pelo grau de complexidade do ambiente, bem como, avaliar se a diversificação de espécies associadas ao plantio do tomateiro pode melhorar o desempenho dos inimigos naturais e assim influenciar a população da traça-do-tomateiro. No capítulo 1, a flutuação populacional da traça-do-tomateiro e a ocorrência de agentes de controle natural foram comparadas em sistema orgânico e convencional de cultivo do tomateiro, quando plantado solteiro ou consorciado ao coentro Coriandrum sativum Linnaeus (Apiaceae) e ao botão-de-ouro, Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (Asteraceae). Os tratamentos orgânicos e com maior diversidade de plantas apresentaram nível populacional da traça três vezes menor, quando comparado com o sistema convencional, principalmente nos estágios de ovo e adulto, além de maior diversidade e abundância de inimigos naturais. Baseado nos dados obtidos no capítulo 1, o coentro C. sativum foi considerado como uma planta adequada para diversificar o sistema do tomateiro, por incrementar os inimigos naturais e ao mesmo tempo apresentar menor grau de competição com a cultura alvo. Dessa forma, o coentro foi escolhido para constituir um consórcio com o tomateiro. No capítulo 2, a flutuação populacional da traça-do-tomateiro e a ocorrência de seus inimigos naturais foram comparados em sistema orgânico e convencional do tomateiro quando plantado solteiro ou associado ao coentro em diferentes estágios fenológicos. O objetivo foi avaliar como o consórcio, associado às práticas agrícolas menos perturbadoras, poderia maximizar as vantagens agronômicas de uso da terra e ao mesmo tempo favorecer os inimigos naturais que afetam a flutuação populacional da traça-do-tomateiro. Como resultado, obteve-se que os tratamentos de tomate-coentro em sistema orgânico apresentaram menores densidades populacionais de ovos e lagartas, bem como maior diversidade e abundância de inimigos naturais quando plantados antes do tomateiro. A abundância de outros herbívoros foi maior nos tratamentos orgânicos, demonstrando que o uso freqüente de inseticidas elimina herbívoros em geral, selecionando a praga-chave da cultura, traça-do-tomateiro. O padrão de menor colonização por adultos da traça, resultando em menos ovos, e maior abundância de inimigos naturais foi observado nos experimentos iniciais de campo. Visando entender a importância dos inimigos naturais e o controle biológico natural da dinâmica populacional da traça-do-tomateiro, o… Advisors/Committee Members: Odair Aparecido Fernandes, Ivone Rezende Diniz, Helena Castanheira de Morais, Edison Ryoiti Sujii, Raul Alberto Laumann, Geni Litvin Villas Boas.

Subjects/Keywords: Agroecology; nutritional ecology; plant-insect interaction; interação inseto-planta; flutuação populacional; controle biológico conservativo; agroecologia; ecologia nutricional; ECOLOGIA; populational fluctuation; conservative biological control

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Medeiros, M. A. d. (2007). Papel da biodiversidade no manejo da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). (Thesis). Universidade de Brasília. Retrieved from http://bdtd.bce.unb.br/tedesimplificado/tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=1374

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Medeiros, Maria Alice de. “Papel da biodiversidade no manejo da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).” 2007. Thesis, Universidade de Brasília. Accessed August 14, 2020. http://bdtd.bce.unb.br/tedesimplificado/tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=1374.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Medeiros, Maria Alice de. “Papel da biodiversidade no manejo da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).” 2007. Web. 14 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Medeiros MAd. Papel da biodiversidade no manejo da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). [Internet] [Thesis]. Universidade de Brasília; 2007. [cited 2020 Aug 14]. Available from: http://bdtd.bce.unb.br/tedesimplificado/tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=1374.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Medeiros MAd. Papel da biodiversidade no manejo da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). [Thesis]. Universidade de Brasília; 2007. Available from: http://bdtd.bce.unb.br/tedesimplificado/tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=1374

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

3. Body, Mélanie. Manipulations des végétaux par les organismes endophytes : mécanismes physiologiques, signalisation et conséquences nutritionnelles chez un insecte mineur de feuilles : Plant manipulation by endophagous organisms : physiological mechanisms, signaling, and nutritional consequences in a leaf-miner insect.

Degree: Docteur es, Sciences biologiques, 2013, Université François-Rabelais de Tours

Les insectes endophytophages, tels que les insectes foreurs de tiges, les galligènes et les mineurs de feuilles, vivent et se nourrissent à l’intérieur des végétaux. L'hypothèse de l'alimentation sélective stipule que ces organismes endophytes possèdent un avantage adaptatif par rapport aux ectophages en accédant aux tissus les plus nutritifs tout en évitant les principaux composés défensifs de la plante. Ce comportement d’alimentation sélective peut être également renforcé par une manipulation de la physiologie de la plante comme cela a été démontré chez les insectes galligènes mais également suggéré chez certains insectes mineurs. Ces derniers sont en effet capables d’induire un phénotype « îles vertes » qui se manifestent par la persistance de la photosynthèse au niveau de la zone minée à l'automne alors que le reste de la feuille entre en sénescence et jaunit. L’objectif de notre étude a été d’étudier, en conditions de terrain, les capacités de manipulation du végétal dans le système Malus domestica / Phyllonorycter blancardella. Cet insecte hautement spécialisé complète l’ensemble de son développement dans une zone restreinte d’une seule feuille.

Endophytophagous insects, such as stem-boring, gall-forming and leaf-mining insects, live within plant tissues and feed internally. The selective feeding hypothesis states that this life-style presumably provides adaptive advantages for the insect over other external-feeding modes by allowing access to most nutritional tissues while avoiding main plant defensive compounds. This selective feeding behavior can be reinforced by manipulating the plant physiology which has been clearly demonstrated in gallers but also suggested in leaf-miner insects due to the autumnal formation of “green islands” around mining caterpillars in yellow leaves. This study aimed to investigate, under field conditions, the ability of insects to manipulate their host-plant in the Malus domestica / Phyllonorycter blancardella biological system. This insect is highly specialized and entirely develops within a restricted area of a single leaf. We first characterized the plant-insect interface by describing larval mouthparts and leaf anatomy alterations resulting from the insect feeding activity.

Advisors/Committee Members: Giron, David (thesis director).

Subjects/Keywords: Interactions plantes-insectes; Écologie nutritionnelle des insectes; Homéostasie nutritionnelle; Mécanismes de régulation pré- et post-ingestion; Manipulation de la plante-hôte; Métabolisme primaire des plantes; Phénotype étendu; Îles vertes; Symbiose nutritionnelle; Insectes endophytophages; Mineuses de feuilles; Phyllonorycter blancardella; Malus domestica; Wolbachia; Cytokinines; Sucres; Acides aminés; Plant-insect interactions; Insect nutritional ecology; Nutritional homeostasis; Pre- and post-ingestive regulatory mechanism; Host-plant manipulation; Plant primary metabolism; Extended phenotype; Green-islands; Nutritional symbiosis; Endophytophagous insects; Leaf-miner; Phyllonorycter blancardella; Malus domestica; Wolbachia; Cytokinins; Sugars; Amino acids

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Body, M. (2013). Manipulations des végétaux par les organismes endophytes : mécanismes physiologiques, signalisation et conséquences nutritionnelles chez un insecte mineur de feuilles : Plant manipulation by endophagous organisms : physiological mechanisms, signaling, and nutritional consequences in a leaf-miner insect. (Doctoral Dissertation). Université François-Rabelais de Tours. Retrieved from http://www.theses.fr/2013TOUR4054

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Body, Mélanie. “Manipulations des végétaux par les organismes endophytes : mécanismes physiologiques, signalisation et conséquences nutritionnelles chez un insecte mineur de feuilles : Plant manipulation by endophagous organisms : physiological mechanisms, signaling, and nutritional consequences in a leaf-miner insect.” 2013. Doctoral Dissertation, Université François-Rabelais de Tours. Accessed August 14, 2020. http://www.theses.fr/2013TOUR4054.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Body, Mélanie. “Manipulations des végétaux par les organismes endophytes : mécanismes physiologiques, signalisation et conséquences nutritionnelles chez un insecte mineur de feuilles : Plant manipulation by endophagous organisms : physiological mechanisms, signaling, and nutritional consequences in a leaf-miner insect.” 2013. Web. 14 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Body M. Manipulations des végétaux par les organismes endophytes : mécanismes physiologiques, signalisation et conséquences nutritionnelles chez un insecte mineur de feuilles : Plant manipulation by endophagous organisms : physiological mechanisms, signaling, and nutritional consequences in a leaf-miner insect. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Université François-Rabelais de Tours; 2013. [cited 2020 Aug 14]. Available from: http://www.theses.fr/2013TOUR4054.

Council of Science Editors:

Body M. Manipulations des végétaux par les organismes endophytes : mécanismes physiologiques, signalisation et conséquences nutritionnelles chez un insecte mineur de feuilles : Plant manipulation by endophagous organisms : physiological mechanisms, signaling, and nutritional consequences in a leaf-miner insect. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Université François-Rabelais de Tours; 2013. Available from: http://www.theses.fr/2013TOUR4054

.