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1. Appia, Vikram VijayanBabu. Non-local active contours.

Degree: PhD, Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2012, Georgia Tech

This thesis deals with image segmentation problems that arise in various computer vision related fields such as medical imaging, satellite imaging, video surveillance, recognition and robotic vision. More specifically, this thesis deals with a special class of image segmentation technique called Snakes or Active Contour Models. In active contour models, image segmentation is posed as an energy minimization problem, where an objective energy function (based on certain image related features) is defined on the segmenting curve (contour). Typically, a gradient descent energy minimization approach is used to drive the initial contour towards a minimum for the defined energy. The drawback associated with this approach is that the contour has a tendency to get stuck at undesired local minima caused by subtle and undesired image features/edges. Thus, active contour based curve evolution approaches are very sensitive to initialization and noise. The central theme of this thesis is to develop techniques that can make active contour models robust against certain classes of local minima by incorporating global information in energy minimization. These techniques lead to energy minimization with global considerations; we call these models  – 'Non-local active contours'. In this thesis, we consider three widely used active contour models: 1) Edge- and region-based segmentation model, 2) Prior shape knowledge based segmentation model, and 3) Motion segmentation model. We analyze the traditional techniques used for these models and establish the need for robust models that avoid local minima. We address the local minima problem for each model by adding global image considerations. Advisors/Committee Members: Dr. Yezzi, Anthony (Committee Chair), Dr. Barnes, Chris (Committee Member), Dr. Narasimha, Rajesh (Committee Member), Dr. Oshinski, John (Committee Member), Dr. Tannenbaum, Allen (Committee Member), Dr. Vela, Patricio (Committee Member).

Subjects/Keywords: Active geodesics; Fast marching; Active contour models; Imge segmentation; Motion segmentation; Optical flow; Shape priors; Localized principal component analysis; Pattern perception; Pattern recognition systems; Computer vision

…Pseudo-code for the interactive segmentation algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . 55 viii LIST… …29 9 A comparison of Left Ventricle segmentation with two different initializations… …Left Ventricle segmentation with proposed active geodesic model: (a) Segmentation… …region-based energy. (s) Final converged segmentation after 19 iterations… …segmentation of the right ventricle with a single repeller inside the ventricle. (b)… 

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APA (6th Edition):

Appia, V. V. (2012). Non-local active contours. (Doctoral Dissertation). Georgia Tech. Retrieved from

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Appia, Vikram VijayanBabu. “Non-local active contours.” 2012. Doctoral Dissertation, Georgia Tech. Accessed June 02, 2020.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Appia, Vikram VijayanBabu. “Non-local active contours.” 2012. Web. 02 Jun 2020.


Appia VV. Non-local active contours. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Georgia Tech; 2012. [cited 2020 Jun 02]. Available from:

Council of Science Editors:

Appia VV. Non-local active contours. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Georgia Tech; 2012. Available from: