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You searched for subject:(Great Ape Communication). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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University of St Andrews

1. Hobaiter, Catherine. Gestural communication in wild chimpanzees.

Degree: PhD, 2012, University of St Andrews

Great ape gesture is an elaborate, flexible system of intentional communication. It has been suggested that human language originated in gesture, thus, the gestural communication of great apes is of great interest for questions on the origin of language. To date, systematic studies of great ape gesture have been limited to restricted captive settings, supplemented by the study of a few specific gestures in wild populations. To address questions about gestural communication from an evolutionary perspective it is necessary to extend the systematic study of gesture into a wild ape population. I therefore undertook a 22-month study of gesture in the wild Sonso chimpanzee community in Budongo, Uganda. Sonso chimpanzees employ a large repertoire of species-typical gestures in intentional communication; a proportion of this repertoire appears to be ape-typical, as would be expected with a biologically given trait. Chimpanzees can acquire new behavioural patterns through imitation; however, this apparently does not represent a significant means of acquiring gestures. Gesturing was employed regularly in an intentional manner from the end of the first year, and was used by chimpanzees of all ages to communicate across a range of contexts, including the evolutionarily urgent context of consortship. Immature chimpanzees used a wide range of gestures, which they combined into rapid sequences. With maturity, use of the repertoire was ‘tuned’ to focus on the most effective gestures, which were then used individually. Despite the evidence for referential pointing in captive chimpanzees, there was little evidence for the regular use of it in wild chimpanzees. Gestures were used to communicate a range of imperative requests that regulated social behaviour. Chimpanzee gestures vary from the ambiguous to the highly specific in meaning; and, while gestures were used flexibly, they tended to be associated with a single dominant meaning.

Subjects/Keywords: 591.5; Chimpanzee; Gesture; Great ape; Wild; Pan; Communication; QL737.P96H73; Chimpanzees – Behavior; Animal communication; Gesture

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APA (6th Edition):

Hobaiter, C. (2012). Gestural communication in wild chimpanzees. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of St Andrews. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2143

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Hobaiter, Catherine. “Gestural communication in wild chimpanzees.” 2012. Doctoral Dissertation, University of St Andrews. Accessed December 03, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2143.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Hobaiter, Catherine. “Gestural communication in wild chimpanzees.” 2012. Web. 03 Dec 2020.

Vancouver:

Hobaiter C. Gestural communication in wild chimpanzees. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of St Andrews; 2012. [cited 2020 Dec 03]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2143.

Council of Science Editors:

Hobaiter C. Gestural communication in wild chimpanzees. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of St Andrews; 2012. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10023/2143


University of St Andrews

2. Cartmill, Erica A. Gestural communication in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii) : a cognitive approach.

Degree: PhD, 2009, University of St Andrews

While most human language is expressed verbally, the gestures produced concurrent to speech provide additional information, help listeners interpret meaning, and provide insight into the cognitive processes of the speaker. Several theories have suggested that gesture played an important, possibly central, role in the evolution of language. Great apes have been shown to use gestures flexibly in different situations and to modify their gestures in response to changing contexts. However, it has not previously been determined whether ape gestures are defined by structural variables, carry meaning, are used to intentionally communicate specific information to others, or can be used strategically to overcome miscommunication. To investigate these questions, I studied three captive populations of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and P. abelii) in European zoos for 10 months. Sixty-four different gestures, defined through similarities in structure and use, were included in the study after meeting strict criteria for intentional usage. More than half of the gesture types were found to coincide frequently with specific goals of signallers, and were accordingly identified as having meanings. Both structural and social variables were found to determine gesture meaning. The recipient’s gaze in both the present and the past, and the recipient’s apparent understanding of the signaller’s gestures, affected the strategies orangutans employed in their attempts to communicate when confronted with different types of communicative failure (e.g. not seeing, ignoring, misunderstanding, or rejecting a gesture). Maternal influence affected the object-directed behaviour and gestures of infants, who shared more gestures with their mothers than with other females. These findings demonstrate that gesture can be used as a medium to investigate not only the communication but also the cognition of great apes, and indicate that orangutans are more sensitive to the perceptions and knowledge states of others than previously thought.

Subjects/Keywords: 591.5; Gesture; Evolution of language; Great ape; Primate; Intentionality; Orang-utan; Orangutan; QL737.P96C28; Orangutan – Behavior; Animal communication; Gesture; Cognition in animals

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Cartmill, E. A. (2009). Gestural communication in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii) : a cognitive approach. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of St Andrews. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10023/634

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Cartmill, Erica A. “Gestural communication in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii) : a cognitive approach.” 2009. Doctoral Dissertation, University of St Andrews. Accessed December 03, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10023/634.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Cartmill, Erica A. “Gestural communication in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii) : a cognitive approach.” 2009. Web. 03 Dec 2020.

Vancouver:

Cartmill EA. Gestural communication in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii) : a cognitive approach. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. University of St Andrews; 2009. [cited 2020 Dec 03]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10023/634.

Council of Science Editors:

Cartmill EA. Gestural communication in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii) : a cognitive approach. [Doctoral Dissertation]. University of St Andrews; 2009. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10023/634


York University

3. Swain, Sara Ann. Feral Ecologies: A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Media.

Degree: PhD, Communication & Culture, Joint Program with Ryerson University, 2017, York University

This dissertation wonders what non-human animals can illuminate about media in the visible contact zones where they meet. It treats these zones as rich field sites from which to excavate neglected material-discursive-semiotic relationships between animals and media. What these encounters demonstrate is that animals are historically and theoretically implicated in the imagination and materialization of media and their attendant processes of communication. Chapter 1 addresses how animals have been excluded from the cultural production of knowledge as a result of an anthropocentric perspective that renders them invisible or reduces them to ciphers for human meanings. It combines ethology and cinematic realism to craft a reparative, non-anthropocentric way of looking that is able to accommodate the plenitude of animals and their traces, and grant them the ontological heft required to exert productive traction in the visual field. Chapter 2 identifies an octopuss encounter with a digital camera and its chance cinematic inscription as part of a larger phenomenon of accidental animal videos. Because non-humans are the catalysts for their production, these videos offer welcome realist counterpoints to traditional wildlife imagery, and affirm cinemas ability to intercede non-anthropocentrically between humans and the world. Realism is essential to cinematic communication, and that realism is ultimately an achievement of non-human intervention. Chapter 3 investigates how an Internet hoax about a non-human ape playing with an iPad in a zoo led to the development of Apps for Apes, a real life enrichment project that pairs captive orangutans with iPads. It contextualizes and criticizes this projects discursive underpinnings but argues that the contingencies that transpire at the touchscreen interface shift our understanding of communication away from sharing minds and toward respecting immanence and accommodating difference. Finally, Chapter 4 examines a publicity stunt wherein a digital data-carrying homing pigeon races against the Internet to meet a computer. Rather than a competition, this is a continuation of a longstanding collaboration between the carrier pigeon and the infrastructure of modern communications. The carrier pigeon is not external but rather endemic to our understanding of communication as a material process that requires movement and coordination to make connections. Advisors/Committee Members: Zryd, Mike (advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Philosophy; Communication; Technological Modernity; Media Materiality; Mobility; Mobile Media; Media Studies; Media Theory; Media History; Web Studies; Philosophy of Technology; Philosophy of Media; Philosophy of Communication; Materiality of Communication; Communications Networks; Assemblage Theory; Telecommunications; Telecommunications Infrastructure; Touchscreens; Interspecies Games; Interspecies Communication; Apps for Apes; Animal Enrichment; Great Ape Communication; Animals; Octopuses; Great Apes; Orangutans; Homing Pigeons; Carrier Pigeons; War Pigeons; Zoos; Animal Captivity; Animal Representation; Wildlife documentary; Wildlife Imagery; Animals in Visual Culture; Animal Ethics; Nature-Cultures; Media Ecology; Digital Aesthetics; Digital Culture; YouTube; Photobombs; Videobombs; Accidental Films; Cameras; Computer Tablets; Telegraph; Train; Internet; Cinema; André Bazin; Jakob von Uexküll; Umwelt; Film-Philosophy; Cinematic Realism; Speculative Realism; Animal Studies; Non-Human Turn; Posthumanism.

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Swain, S. A. (2017). Feral Ecologies: A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Media. (Doctoral Dissertation). York University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10315/33424

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Swain, Sara Ann. “Feral Ecologies: A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Media.” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, York University. Accessed December 03, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10315/33424.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Swain, Sara Ann. “Feral Ecologies: A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Media.” 2017. Web. 03 Dec 2020.

Vancouver:

Swain SA. Feral Ecologies: A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Media. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. York University; 2017. [cited 2020 Dec 03]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10315/33424.

Council of Science Editors:

Swain SA. Feral Ecologies: A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Media. [Doctoral Dissertation]. York University; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10315/33424

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