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You searched for subject:(Grape seed polyphenols). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Stellenbosch University

1. Smith, Tanya. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms that may contribute to polyphenol-induced effects on neutrophil chemokinesis.

Degree: MSc, Physiological Sciences, 2017, Stellenbosch University

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Grape-derived products are high in polyphenols and are known to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo studies in the context of muscle injury-induced inflammation have proven grape seed-derived proanthocyanidin oligomers (PCO) to benefit recovery by modulation of neutrophil infiltration into damaged tissue, thereby reducing secondary damage. Also, in these models, PCO have been shown to facilitate an early anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype shift, which resulted in faster resolution of inflammation and shortened recovery time. However, these results have not been investigated in a human model and the specific molecular targets of PCO is not clear. This study therefore aimed to investigate potential molecular targets of PCO in a normally healthy population. In addition, given anecdotal concern about consumer safety, a secondary aim was to investigate haematological effects of short-term PCO supplementation in humans. A limited haematology assessment was included to address these concerns. Eighteen normally healthy volunteers between the ages of 18-25 years old (13 female and 5 male) were subjected to daily oral supplementation with 140mg of PCO for a 2-week period. Blood samples were taken at baseline (day 0), as well as on days 7 and 14. Day 0 and 14 samples were comprehensively analysed for in vitro neutrophil chemokinetic capacity towards a chemotaxin (fMLP) using live cell tracking software, as well as neutrophil expression levels of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD66b) by flow cytometry and cell polarisation factors (ROCK, PI3K) using immunohistochemistry. Macrophage expression of markers indicative of different phenotypes were assessed using flow cytometry. In addition, day 7 samples were assessed for PCO-induced effects on general haematology and hemostasis. No adverse effects of PCO was evident. A novel neutrophil migration assay was developed to allow immunohistochemistry staining on chemokinetic neutrophils, allowing assessment of molecular role players involved in chemokinesis and actual movement capacity on the same cells. Although PCO supplementation had no evident effect on neutrophil chemokinesis or adhesion molecule expression, the increase in ROCK co-localisation with PI3K under stimulated conditions was prevented, while ROCK expression itself tended to be decreased. Macrophage phenotype markers CD274 and MPO – both indicative of a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype – was normalised after PCO treatment. We conclude that the PCO product employed in the current study, was safe for consumption. Furthermore, data indicates that neutrophil chemokinetic capacity may be optimised by PCO via modulation of the ROCK-PI3K-PTEN system, which results in better front-rear synchronisation of cell polarisation and thus movement. Finally, data confirms earlier reports in rodents, of a direct effect on macrophages to achieve a relatively anti-inflammatory phenotype predominance.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Produkte afgelei van druiwe bevat hoë konsentrasies polifenole en is…

Advisors/Committee Members: Smith, C., Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Science. Dept. of Physiological Sciences..

Subjects/Keywords: Plant polyphenols; Clinical trials  – Multivariety analysis; Grape seed extract  – Grapes  – Therapeutic use; UCTD

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Smith, T. (2017). Elucidation of molecular mechanisms that may contribute to polyphenol-induced effects on neutrophil chemokinesis. (Masters Thesis). Stellenbosch University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/100953

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Smith, Tanya. “Elucidation of molecular mechanisms that may contribute to polyphenol-induced effects on neutrophil chemokinesis.” 2017. Masters Thesis, Stellenbosch University. Accessed December 05, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/100953.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Smith, Tanya. “Elucidation of molecular mechanisms that may contribute to polyphenol-induced effects on neutrophil chemokinesis.” 2017. Web. 05 Dec 2020.

Vancouver:

Smith T. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms that may contribute to polyphenol-induced effects on neutrophil chemokinesis. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Stellenbosch University; 2017. [cited 2020 Dec 05]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/100953.

Council of Science Editors:

Smith T. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms that may contribute to polyphenol-induced effects on neutrophil chemokinesis. [Masters Thesis]. Stellenbosch University; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/100953

2. Sodhani, Shradha. The effect of grape seed polyphenols and delta tocotrienol as supplements in improvement of NASH histopathology in C57BL/J6 mice fed high fat diet.

Degree: PhD, Nutrition and Food Sciences, 2012, Texas Woman's University

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH), which are histologically similar to alcoholic hepatitis are the most common liver conditions in USA. Diets high in fat have been associated with the development of obesity and NASH. Currently there are no therapeutic drugs approved by FDA available as treatment for these diseases; therefore attention has been directed towards the role of bioactive compounds like polyphenols and fat-soluble vitamin E in the treatment of NAFLD/NASH. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary grape seed polyphenols (GSP, 1% and 2%) and δ-tocotrienol (δ3T, 0.025% and 0.05%) supplementation alone and in combination, incorporated into a high fat diet (HF) on NASH-like histopathologic features and liver fibrosis in C57BL/6J mice. Mice were placed on HF diets which were supplemented with two doses of GSP, δ-tocotrienol or their combination. Histopathological changes of the liver were assessed using Hematoxylin and Eosin stain, periodic acid Schiff stain (P.A.S) and Masson's trichrome stain and hepatic fibrosis by immunostaining. The morphometric analysis showed that the NASH-like histologic features increased in HF diet fed group, and reduced both by (i) GSP supplementation alone and (ii) in combination with δ3T. Steatosis was reduced by GSP with reduction of the lipid droplet area (p ≤ .01) (cells/mm2). Overall, the HF diet was found to induce steatosis in the mice. The photomicrographs obtained from the three different histology stains showed the beneficial effects of GSP supplementation with reduction in mice mean liver weight, steatosis and absence of collagen accumulation and reduction in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and liver fibrosis. Thus dietary GSP supplementation alone and in combination with δ3T in HF diet may ameliorate the NASH-like histopathological features in C57BL/6J mice. Advisors/Committee Members: Imrhan, Victorine (Committee Chair), Mills, Nathaniel (committee member), Vijayagopal, Parakat (committee member), Juma, Shanil (committee member).

Subjects/Keywords: Biological sciences; Health and environmental sciences; Delta tocotrienol; Grape seed polyphenols; High fat diet; NASH histopathology; Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

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APA (6th Edition):

Sodhani, S. (2012). The effect of grape seed polyphenols and delta tocotrienol as supplements in improvement of NASH histopathology in C57BL/J6 mice fed high fat diet. (Doctoral Dissertation). Texas Woman's University. Retrieved from https://twu-ir.tdl.org/handle/11274/10573

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Sodhani, Shradha. “The effect of grape seed polyphenols and delta tocotrienol as supplements in improvement of NASH histopathology in C57BL/J6 mice fed high fat diet.” 2012. Doctoral Dissertation, Texas Woman's University. Accessed December 05, 2020. https://twu-ir.tdl.org/handle/11274/10573.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Sodhani, Shradha. “The effect of grape seed polyphenols and delta tocotrienol as supplements in improvement of NASH histopathology in C57BL/J6 mice fed high fat diet.” 2012. Web. 05 Dec 2020.

Vancouver:

Sodhani S. The effect of grape seed polyphenols and delta tocotrienol as supplements in improvement of NASH histopathology in C57BL/J6 mice fed high fat diet. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Texas Woman's University; 2012. [cited 2020 Dec 05]. Available from: https://twu-ir.tdl.org/handle/11274/10573.

Council of Science Editors:

Sodhani S. The effect of grape seed polyphenols and delta tocotrienol as supplements in improvement of NASH histopathology in C57BL/J6 mice fed high fat diet. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Texas Woman's University; 2012. Available from: https://twu-ir.tdl.org/handle/11274/10573

3. Triolo, Roberta. Hierarchy of factors impacting grape berry mass at different scales and its direct and indirect effects on grape and wine composition : Hiérarchisation des facteurs impactant la masse de la baie de raisin à différentes échelles et leurs effets directs et indirects sur la composition du raisin et du vin.

Degree: Docteur es, Oenologie, 2016, Bordeaux; Università degli studi di Palermo (Palerme, Italie)

La masse de la baie est le résultat de l’effet intégré de plusieurs facteurs. La recherche a été dessinée afin d’étudier l’effet simultané des facteurs majeurs influençant la masse et la composition de la baie, de les hiérarchiser selon leur degré d’impact à des échelles différentes, de séparer leur effet direct et indirect sur la composition du raisin et de comparer le profil de vins élaborés à partir de petites et grosses baies. L’étude a été conduite sur deux sites expérimentaux, localisés dans les régions de Saint-Emilion (France) et Alcamo (Italie), pendant les années 2014 et 2015. Sur le premier site, les vignes sont plantées sur deux types de sols, tandis que sur le deuxième, deux traitements hydriques étaient appliqués. A l’échelle intra-parcellaire, l’état hydrique de la vigne représente le facteur le plus important, tandis que l’effet du nombre de pépins par baie n’est pas significatif. Des résultats opposés sont obtenus lorsque les relations sont étudiées à l’échelle de la grappe et de la plante. A large échelle, les facteurs impactent directement et indirectement la composition du raisin et les petites baies produisent des moûts et des vins plus concentrés. A l’inverse, à l’échelle de la grappe et de la plante, la masse de la baie n’influence pas la composition du raisin. Seule la concentration en anthocyanes est significativement liée à la masse à toutes les échelles. Cette relation est particulièrement évidente sous conditions hydriques limitantes. Un déficit hydrique augmente le ratio pellicule/pulpe, indépendamment de la masse de la baie. Petites et grosses baies d’une parcelle ayant une condition hydrique homogène, tendent à avoir un profil similaire.

Final berry mass is the result of the integrated effect of several factors. They also influence berry composition. The present work was designed to study the simultaneous effect of major factors influencing berry mass and composition, to hierarchize their impact at different scales, to distinguish their direct and indirect effect on berry composition and to compare the profile of wines made from large and small berries. The study was carried out simultaneously on two vineyards located in the Saint Emil ion (France) and Alcamo (Sicily) areas, during 2014 and 2015. On the first site, vines were planted on two soil types, while on the second site two different irrigation treatments were applied. Depending on the scale, some factors homogeneously impacted the berry mass and composition. At the intra-parcel scale, vine water status represented the most impacting factor, while berry seed number did not have significant effect. Opposite results were obtained when the investigation was carried out at the intra-bunch and intra-plant scales. At large scale, factors impacted directly and indirectly berry compounds and grape juices and wines produced from smaller berries were more concentrated. Neither at intra-bunch, nor at intra-plant scales, berry size effect on juice composition was significant. Only anthocyanin concentration was related to berry size at all…

Advisors/Committee Members: Van Leeuwen, Cornelis (thesis director), Di Lorenzo, Rosario (thesis director).

Subjects/Keywords: Vitis vinifera; Masse de la baie; Statut azoté; Régime hydrique; Azote assimilable; Discrimination isotopique du carbone; Pépins; Triage des raisins; Composition des raisins; Composition des vins; Polyphénols; Aromes; Lactones; Vitis vinifera; Grape berry mass; Vine nitrogen status; Vine water status; Carbon isotope discrimination; Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen; Berry seed; Grape berry sorting; Grape berry composition; Wine composition; Polyphenols; Lactones

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Triolo, R. (2016). Hierarchy of factors impacting grape berry mass at different scales and its direct and indirect effects on grape and wine composition : Hiérarchisation des facteurs impactant la masse de la baie de raisin à différentes échelles et leurs effets directs et indirects sur la composition du raisin et du vin. (Doctoral Dissertation). Bordeaux; Università degli studi di Palermo (Palerme, Italie). Retrieved from http://www.theses.fr/2016BORD0336

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Triolo, Roberta. “Hierarchy of factors impacting grape berry mass at different scales and its direct and indirect effects on grape and wine composition : Hiérarchisation des facteurs impactant la masse de la baie de raisin à différentes échelles et leurs effets directs et indirects sur la composition du raisin et du vin.” 2016. Doctoral Dissertation, Bordeaux; Università degli studi di Palermo (Palerme, Italie). Accessed December 05, 2020. http://www.theses.fr/2016BORD0336.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Triolo, Roberta. “Hierarchy of factors impacting grape berry mass at different scales and its direct and indirect effects on grape and wine composition : Hiérarchisation des facteurs impactant la masse de la baie de raisin à différentes échelles et leurs effets directs et indirects sur la composition du raisin et du vin.” 2016. Web. 05 Dec 2020.

Vancouver:

Triolo R. Hierarchy of factors impacting grape berry mass at different scales and its direct and indirect effects on grape and wine composition : Hiérarchisation des facteurs impactant la masse de la baie de raisin à différentes échelles et leurs effets directs et indirects sur la composition du raisin et du vin. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Bordeaux; Università degli studi di Palermo (Palerme, Italie); 2016. [cited 2020 Dec 05]. Available from: http://www.theses.fr/2016BORD0336.

Council of Science Editors:

Triolo R. Hierarchy of factors impacting grape berry mass at different scales and its direct and indirect effects on grape and wine composition : Hiérarchisation des facteurs impactant la masse de la baie de raisin à différentes échelles et leurs effets directs et indirects sur la composition du raisin et du vin. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Bordeaux; Università degli studi di Palermo (Palerme, Italie); 2016. Available from: http://www.theses.fr/2016BORD0336

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