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1. Niang, Cheikh Ahmed Tidiane. Vers plus d'automatisation dans la construction de systèmes mediateurs pour le web semantique : une application des logiques de description : Towards more automation in building mediator systems in the semantic web context : a description logic application.

Degree: Docteur es, Informatique, 2013, Tours; Université de Saint-Louis (Sénégal)

Les travaux que nous présentons dans cette thèse concernent l’automatisation de la construction de systèmes médiateurs pour le web sémantique. L’intégration de données de manière générale et la médiation en particulier sont des processus qui visent à exploiter conjointement des sources d’information indépendantes, hétérogènes et distribuées. L’objectif final est de permettre à un utilisateur d’interroger ces données comme si elles provenaient d’un système unique et centralisé grâce à une interface d’interrogation uniforme basée sur un modèle du domaine d’application, appelé schéma global. Durant ces dernières années, beaucoup de projets de recherche se sont intéressés à cette problématique et de nombreux systèmes d’intégration ont été proposés. Cependant, la quantité d’intervention humaine nécessaire pour construire ces systèmes est beaucoup trop importante pour qu’il soit envisageable de les mettre en place dans bien des situations. De plus, face à la diversité et à l’évolution croissante des sources d’information apparaissent de nouveaux chalenges relatifs notamment à la flexibilité et à la rapidité d’accès à l’information. Nos propositions s’appuient sur les modèles et technologies du web sémantique. Cette généralisation du web qui est un vaste espace d’échange de ressources, non seulement entre êtres humains, mais également entre machines, offre par essence les moyens d’une automatisation des processus d’intégration. Ils reposent d’une part sur des langages et une infrastructure dont l’objectif est d’enrichir le web d’informations "sémantiques", et d’autre part sur des usages collaboratifs qui produisent des ressources ontologiques pertinentes et réutilisables.

This thesis is set in a research effort that aims to bring more automation in building mediator-based data integration systems in the semantic Web context. The mediator approach is a conceptual architecture of data integration that involves combining data residing in different sources and providing users with a unified view of these data. The problem of designing effective data integration solutions has been addressed by several researches, and well-known data integration projects have been developed during the 90’s. However, the building process of these systems rely heavily on human intervention so that it is difficult to implement them in many situations. Moreover, faced with the diversity and the increase of available information sources, the easiness and fastness of information access are new challenges. Our proposals are based on models and technologies of semantic web. The semantic web is recognized as a generalization of the current web which enables to find, combine and share resources, not only between humans but also between machines. It provides a good track for automating the integration process. Possibilities offered by the semantic web are based, on the one hand, on languages and an infrastructure aiming to enrich the web with "semantic" information and, on the other hand, on collaborative practices that allow the production of relevant…

Advisors/Committee Members: Giacometti, Arnaud (thesis director), Lô, Moussa (thesis director), Markhoff, Béatrice (thesis director), Sam, Yacine (thesis director).

Subjects/Keywords: Web sémantique; Ontologies; Ontologies de référence; Intégration de données; Systèmes de médiation; Ontology-Based Data Access (OBDA); Schéma global; Logique de description; Automatisation; Construction incrémentale; Semantic web; Ontologies; Domain-reference ontologies; Data integration; Semantic mediator systems; Ontology-Based Data Access (OBDA); Global schema; Description Logic; Automation; Incremental building process

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Niang, C. A. T. (2013). Vers plus d'automatisation dans la construction de systèmes mediateurs pour le web semantique : une application des logiques de description : Towards more automation in building mediator systems in the semantic web context : a description logic application. (Doctoral Dissertation). Tours; Université de Saint-Louis (Sénégal). Retrieved from http://www.theses.fr/2013TOUR4020

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Niang, Cheikh Ahmed Tidiane. “Vers plus d'automatisation dans la construction de systèmes mediateurs pour le web semantique : une application des logiques de description : Towards more automation in building mediator systems in the semantic web context : a description logic application.” 2013. Doctoral Dissertation, Tours; Université de Saint-Louis (Sénégal). Accessed August 15, 2020. http://www.theses.fr/2013TOUR4020.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Niang, Cheikh Ahmed Tidiane. “Vers plus d'automatisation dans la construction de systèmes mediateurs pour le web semantique : une application des logiques de description : Towards more automation in building mediator systems in the semantic web context : a description logic application.” 2013. Web. 15 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Niang CAT. Vers plus d'automatisation dans la construction de systèmes mediateurs pour le web semantique : une application des logiques de description : Towards more automation in building mediator systems in the semantic web context : a description logic application. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Tours; Université de Saint-Louis (Sénégal); 2013. [cited 2020 Aug 15]. Available from: http://www.theses.fr/2013TOUR4020.

Council of Science Editors:

Niang CAT. Vers plus d'automatisation dans la construction de systèmes mediateurs pour le web semantique : une application des logiques de description : Towards more automation in building mediator systems in the semantic web context : a description logic application. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Tours; Université de Saint-Louis (Sénégal); 2013. Available from: http://www.theses.fr/2013TOUR4020


University of Melbourne

2. Roberts, David Glyn. Insight through uncertainty: a review of the literature on the effects of cognitive processes and schema on responses to elicitation (‘projective’) techniques in evaluation and research interviews.

Degree: 2016, University of Melbourne

A problem for evaluators is that what people ‘say’ is often, but not always, different from what they ‘do.’ Most thinking, knowledge, behaviour, decisions are automatic, quick and have the characteristics of intuition, little or no effort and no voluntary control (Kahneman 2011b). Our everyday behaviours and thinking are largely based on implicit knowledge consisting of mental representations, or ‘schema’; cognitive knowledge about whatever we are thinking about or acting towards. The schemas are triggered by association and are further elaborated by association. As a result active schemas are internally coherent and semantically consistent (Graesser, Gernsbacher, and Goldman 1997). Schemas allow us to act without consciously thinking about what we will do or how: we simply ‘do,’ ‘know’ and ‘understand.’ A consequence of our reliance on implicit knowledge is that what people ‘say about’ phenomena does not always reflect what they ‘do.’ Elicitation techniques are increasingly being used in research and evaluation to get beyond what people say, apparently by tapping into the implicit cognitive understandings. Elicitation techniques are being used in social research, educational research, market research and evaluation. However, users of elicitation techniques need to understand the limits on the validity of such techniques and how to improve their effectiveness. Understanding the cognitive processes that mediate responses such cognitive processes can help improve the way evaluators obtain data. This thesis aims to improve our understanding of how to use projective or elicitation techniques validly in evaluation and research interviews. The majority of the thesis reviews the literature across several domains and disciplines to explore the cognitive processes that underlie people’s responses to elicitation techniques. The domains and disciplines include cognitive psychology, neurophysiology, phenomenological sociology, evaluation and social research (quantitative and qualitative), educational research and market research. A small pilot study was also conducted to test the concept that elicitation techniques reveal a schema and to identify areas for further research. For the pilot study eight participants were each engaged in a single interview with two parts: an initial interview using ‘Thematic Apperception Testing’ (TAT) technique (Boddy 2008): and a debrief interview where verbal protocols (Sudman, Bradburn, and Schwarz 1996) were used to explore the cognitive processes used in the initial interview. The pilot study showed that TAT may elicit information that has the characteristics of implicit knowledge and appears to be based on schemas. There are two cautions to be considered. Breivik and Supphellen (2003) report that in market research, different techniques elicit different product attribute sets. Their finding suggests that different techniques may elicit different schemas. It follows, that the schema elicited by a technique may not contain the knowledge activated in the situation being…

Subjects/Keywords: Insight; cognitive processes; cognitive schema; schema; schemata; elicitation techniques; projective techniques; evaluation interviews; research interviews; improving interview methods; implicit thinking; implicit knowledge; tacit knowledge; explicit thinking; procedural knowledge; declarative knowledge; stock of knowledge; thematic apperception testing; verbal protocols; everyday behaviour; behavioural economics; System 1 thinking; System 2 thinking; recall; memory; short-term memory; long-term memory; workspace; global workspace; critical realist; constructivism; post-positivist; abductive reasoning; heuristics; working self; awareness; cognitive information processing; cognitive question-answering models; recognition; attitude measurement; intuition; everyday behaviour; self-presentation; response bias; response effects; efficacy of questionnaires; validity of interview data; construction of responses; standpoint consistency; satisficing; data quality; hidden knowledge; inconsistent knowledge; interpretive framework; recall; identification; dual process; self-schema; attitude inconsistency; verbal behaviour; category instance generation; interview ‘frame’; context effects; eliciting useful schema; analysis of interview data

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Roberts, D. G. (2016). Insight through uncertainty: a review of the literature on the effects of cognitive processes and schema on responses to elicitation (‘projective’) techniques in evaluation and research interviews. (Masters Thesis). University of Melbourne. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11343/91575

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Roberts, David Glyn. “Insight through uncertainty: a review of the literature on the effects of cognitive processes and schema on responses to elicitation (‘projective’) techniques in evaluation and research interviews.” 2016. Masters Thesis, University of Melbourne. Accessed August 15, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/11343/91575.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Roberts, David Glyn. “Insight through uncertainty: a review of the literature on the effects of cognitive processes and schema on responses to elicitation (‘projective’) techniques in evaluation and research interviews.” 2016. Web. 15 Aug 2020.

Vancouver:

Roberts DG. Insight through uncertainty: a review of the literature on the effects of cognitive processes and schema on responses to elicitation (‘projective’) techniques in evaluation and research interviews. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. University of Melbourne; 2016. [cited 2020 Aug 15]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11343/91575.

Council of Science Editors:

Roberts DG. Insight through uncertainty: a review of the literature on the effects of cognitive processes and schema on responses to elicitation (‘projective’) techniques in evaluation and research interviews. [Masters Thesis]. University of Melbourne; 2016. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11343/91575

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