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McMaster University

1. Qin, Yiheng. Microfabricated pH, temperature, and free chlorine sensors for integrated drinking water quality monitoring systems.

Degree: PhD, 2017, McMaster University

The monitoring of pH and free chlorine concentration in drinking water is important for water safety and public health. However, existing laboratory-based analytical methods are laborious, inefficient, and costly. This thesis focuses on the development of an easy-to-use, sensitive, and low-cost drinking water quality monitoring system for pH and free chlorine. An inkjet printing technology with a two-step thermolysis process in air is developed to deposit palladium/palladium oxide (Pd/PdO) films as potentiometric pH sensing electrodes. The redox reaction between PdO and hydronium ions generates the sensor output voltage. A large PdO percentage in the film provides a high sensitivity of ~60 mV/pH. A defect-free Pd/PdO film with small roughness contributes to a fast response and a high stability. When the Pd ink is thermalized in low vacuum, the deposited Pd/PdO film shows a bilayer structure. The residual oxygen in the low vacuum environment assists the decomposition of organic ligands for Pd to form a thin and continuous layer beneath submicron Pd aggregates. The oxidized bilayer film behaves as a temperature sensor with a sensitivity of 0.19% resistance change per °C, which can be used to compensate the sensed pH signals. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is drawn by hand to form a free chlorine sensor. Free chlorine oxidises PEDOT:PSS, whose resistivity increment indicates the free chlorine concentration in the range of 0.5-500 ppm. Also, we simplified an amperometric free chlorine sensor based on amine-modified pencil leads. The simplified sensor is calibration-free, potentiostat-free, and easy-to-use. The pH, temperature, and free chlorine sensors are fabricated on a common substrate and connected to a field-programmable gate array board for data processing and display. The sensing system is user-friendly, cheap, and can accurately monitor real water samples.

Thesis

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Sensitive, easy-to-use, and low-cost pH and free chlorine monitoring systems are important for drinking water safety and public health. In this thesis, we develop an inkjet printing technology to deposit palladium/palladium oxide films for potentiometric pH sensors and resistive temperature sensors. The different electrical and electrochemical properties of the palladium/palladium oxide films are realized by creating different film morphologies using different ink thermolysis atmospheres. The developed pH and temperature sensors are highly sensitive, fast in response, and stable. For free chlorine sensors, a hand drawing process is used to deposit poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), which is an indicator for the free chlorine concentration over a wide range. We also developed a calibration-free free chlorine sensors based on modified pencil leads. Such a free chlorine sensor is integrated with the pH and temperature sensors, and an electronic readout system for accurate on-site drinking water quality monitoring at low cost is…

Advisors/Committee Members: Howlader, Matiar M. R., Deen, M. Jamal, Haddara, Yaser M., Electrical and Computer Engineering.

Subjects/Keywords: Inkjet printing; Sensor; Water quality monitoring; pH sensor; Free chlorine sensor; Temperature sensor

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Qin, Y. (2017). Microfabricated pH, temperature, and free chlorine sensors for integrated drinking water quality monitoring systems. (Doctoral Dissertation). McMaster University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11375/21465

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Qin, Yiheng. “Microfabricated pH, temperature, and free chlorine sensors for integrated drinking water quality monitoring systems.” 2017. Doctoral Dissertation, McMaster University. Accessed January 23, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/11375/21465.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Qin, Yiheng. “Microfabricated pH, temperature, and free chlorine sensors for integrated drinking water quality monitoring systems.” 2017. Web. 23 Jan 2020.

Vancouver:

Qin Y. Microfabricated pH, temperature, and free chlorine sensors for integrated drinking water quality monitoring systems. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. McMaster University; 2017. [cited 2020 Jan 23]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11375/21465.

Council of Science Editors:

Qin Y. Microfabricated pH, temperature, and free chlorine sensors for integrated drinking water quality monitoring systems. [Doctoral Dissertation]. McMaster University; 2017. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11375/21465

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