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Degree: PhD, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology PhD, 2013, Wright State University

Gabbard, Stephen R., Ph.D., Human Factors andIndustrial/Organizational Psychology Ph.D. Program,Department of Psychology, Wright State University, 2013.Flash Lag Effect Model DiscriminationThe purpose of this study was to test the various models describing the Flash Lag Effect (FLE). Beginning with the initial work of Nijhawan (1994), several models have emerged endeavoring to explain the FLE (e.g., Eagleman & Sejnowski, 2000; Whitney, 2000; Baldo & Caticha, 2005). Two series of studies comprising 11 separate experiments were undertaken to differentiate these models, with a particular focus on the neural network model of Baldo and Caticha (2005). The experiments included the three primary FLE experimental paradigms: continuous motion (CM), flash-initiated (FIC) and flash-terminated (FTC). Ninety-three participants made observations in these three paradigms using a 2-AFC interleaved staircase protocol. ANOVAs were performed on each of the 11 experiments to determine main effects and interactions of the experimental factors, and additionally, overall FLE levels irrespective of factor influences. The combination of results shows that the neural network model (Baldo & Caticha, 2005) holds promise to form the basis for a unifying theory, whereas the postdiction (Eagleman & Sejnowski, 2000) and differential neural latency (Whitney, 2000) models do not. Implications and directions for further study are discussed. Advisors/Committee Members: Watamaniuk, Scott (Committee Chair).

Subjects/Keywords: Psychology; Flash lag effect; Neural network model; Flash initiated; Flash terminated; Postdiction; Differential neural latency

…FLE = Flash Lag Effect CM = Continuous Motion {condition} FIC = Flash Initiated… …one where the motion is initiated with the flash (Flash-Initiated Condition, or FIC… …luminance. Error bars are ± 1 standard error. Note that the bright flash had a smaller FLE in both… …FIC temporal delay by condition. The flash is seen first in all conditions. There were no… …combination of a bright flash and dim moving stimulus appears significantly different from the other… 

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APA (6th Edition):

Gabbard, S. R. (2013). FLASH LAG EFFECT MODEL DISCRIMINATION. (Doctoral Dissertation). Wright State University. Retrieved from

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Gabbard, Stephen R. “FLASH LAG EFFECT MODEL DISCRIMINATION.” 2013. Doctoral Dissertation, Wright State University. Accessed March 07, 2021.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Gabbard, Stephen R. “FLASH LAG EFFECT MODEL DISCRIMINATION.” 2013. Web. 07 Mar 2021.


Gabbard SR. FLASH LAG EFFECT MODEL DISCRIMINATION. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Wright State University; 2013. [cited 2021 Mar 07]. Available from:

Council of Science Editors:

Gabbard SR. FLASH LAG EFFECT MODEL DISCRIMINATION. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Wright State University; 2013. Available from: