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IUPUI

1. Perry, Jay Martin. Shillelaghs, Shovels, and Secrets: Irish Immigrant Secret Societies and the Building of Indiana Internal Improvements, 1835-1837.

Degree: 2009, IUPUI

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)

In the 1830s, Indiana undertook an ambitious internal improvements program, building the state’s first railroad and multiple canals. To complete the projects, Indiana used Irish immigrant laborers. The Irish laborers developed a reputation for brawling amongst themselves, highlighted by a riot involving 600 laborers working on the Wabash and Erie Canal in 1835. Multiple volumes of Indiana history identify the Wabash and Erie riot as a one-time event inspired by Protestant and Catholic animosity imported from Ireland. A review of the historical record, however, contradicts these long-held assumptions. Inspired by Irish traditions of faction fighting and peasant secret societies, Irish immigrant laborers formed secret societies that used violence against competitors in hopes of securing access to internal improvement jobs for their own membership. The rival secret societies, the Corkonians and the Fardowns, organized based on their provincial origins in Ireland. Examples of Corkonian and Fardown violence occurred throughout the country. In Indiana, a pattern of Corkonian and Fardown conflict resulted in skirmishes on at least three different construction sites between 1835 and 1837. In contrast to the traditional narrative, the Corkonians and Fardowns were both pioneers of the first wave of large-scale Irish Catholic immigration whose rivalry centered on job protection and economic grievances.

Advisors/Committee Members: Wokeck, Marianne Sophia, Kelly, Jason M., Morgan, Anita J..

Subjects/Keywords: Catholic; canals; unskilled labor; Madison and Indianapolis Railroad; Central Canal; Ireland; Know Nothings; nineteenth century; internal improvements; Secret Societies; Riots; Fardowns; Corkonians; Wabash and Erie Canal; railroad laborers; canal laborers; Irish immigrants; Indiana; Immigrants  – Indiana  – 19th century; Irish  – Foreign countries  – 19th century; Railroads  – Design and construction  – 19th century; Canals  – Design and construction  – 19th century; Secret societies  – Indiana  – 19th century; Unskilled labor; Madison and Indianapolis Rail Road Company; American Party; Riots; Wabash and Erie Canal (Ind. and Ohio); Indiana

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Perry, J. M. (2009). Shillelaghs, Shovels, and Secrets: Irish Immigrant Secret Societies and the Building of Indiana Internal Improvements, 1835-1837. (Thesis). IUPUI. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1805/2056

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Perry, Jay Martin. “Shillelaghs, Shovels, and Secrets: Irish Immigrant Secret Societies and the Building of Indiana Internal Improvements, 1835-1837.” 2009. Thesis, IUPUI. Accessed December 15, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/1805/2056.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Perry, Jay Martin. “Shillelaghs, Shovels, and Secrets: Irish Immigrant Secret Societies and the Building of Indiana Internal Improvements, 1835-1837.” 2009. Web. 15 Dec 2019.

Vancouver:

Perry JM. Shillelaghs, Shovels, and Secrets: Irish Immigrant Secret Societies and the Building of Indiana Internal Improvements, 1835-1837. [Internet] [Thesis]. IUPUI; 2009. [cited 2019 Dec 15]. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/2056.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Perry JM. Shillelaghs, Shovels, and Secrets: Irish Immigrant Secret Societies and the Building of Indiana Internal Improvements, 1835-1837. [Thesis]. IUPUI; 2009. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/2056

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

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