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1. Ghebrai, Ruth. Genocide : The complexity of genocidal intent.

Degree: Psychology and Social Work, 2012, Örebro University

Article II of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide stipulates the definition of the crime. A key element of genocide is the criterion of “intent”; this requisite must be met in order to determine criminal liability. Even though “intent” is a paramount element of the crime neither definition nor guidance regarding its interpretation is provided for under Article II, this void of interpretation is absolute throughout the Genocide Convention. Hence, the purpose of this thesis is to examine this void in the provision. In order to fulfill the purpose of this thesis the following research questions have been regarded: How is the requisite intent defined in relevant preparatory work of Genocide Convention? How is the requisite intent interpreted in relevant case law and judicial doctrines and are these interpretations in line with the preparatory work of the Genocide Convention? Is the definition and interpretation of the requisite intent in the abovementioned legal sources consistent with the object and purpose of the Genocide Convention? We found that in the preparatory work of the Genocide Convention, the requisite intent has not been labeled. However, the Drafters definition of intent is in accordance with international criminal law’s definition of specific intent. Also, the case law and judicial doctrines that we have examined all fall within either the purpose-based or the knowledge-based approach. Both approaches acknowledge that a perpetrator needs to possess an inner aim or desire to meet the level of intent required for the Crime. Notwithstanding, the knowledge-based approach holds that “policy or plan” is part of the Crime whereas the purpose-based approach rejects it and consequently the application of genocidal intent is distinctively different. With regard to preparatory work, the purpose-based approach is in line with the definition of the Drafters whereas the knowledge-based approach is not in its literal meaning. However, the Drafters did not explicitly reject the knowledge-based approach in the preparatory work of the Genocide Convention. We have concluded that the purpose-based approach is not consistent with the object and purpose of the Genocide Convention. We hold that the knowledge-based approach is in line with the object and purpose of the Genocide Convention, and hence this approach upholds the goal of preventing and punishing genocide. Moreover, the method for this thesis is in accordance with the method in international law for interpretations of international treaties; the Vienna Convention on the law of Treaties. Hence, the selection, systemization and interpretation of legal sources are in line with the Vienna Convention.

Subjects/Keywords: genocide; genocidal intent; specific intent; dolus specialis; intent; folkmord; avsikt; folkmordsavsikt; Law (excluding Law and Society); Juridik (exklusive juridik och samhälle)

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Ghebrai, R. (2012). Genocide : The complexity of genocidal intent. (Thesis). Örebro University. Retrieved from http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-23523

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Ghebrai, Ruth. “Genocide : The complexity of genocidal intent.” 2012. Thesis, Örebro University. Accessed April 10, 2020. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-23523.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Ghebrai, Ruth. “Genocide : The complexity of genocidal intent.” 2012. Web. 10 Apr 2020.

Vancouver:

Ghebrai R. Genocide : The complexity of genocidal intent. [Internet] [Thesis]. Örebro University; 2012. [cited 2020 Apr 10]. Available from: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-23523.

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

Council of Science Editors:

Ghebrai R. Genocide : The complexity of genocidal intent. [Thesis]. Örebro University; 2012. Available from: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-23523

Note: this citation may be lacking information needed for this citation format:
Not specified: Masters Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation

2. Lagoutte, Julien. Les conditions de la responsabilité en droit privé : éléments pour une théorie générale de la responsabilité juridique : The conditions of responsibility in private law : elements for a general theory of legal responsibility.

Degree: Docteur es, Droit, 2012, Université Montesquieu – Bordeaux IV

Alors que l’on enseigne classiquement la distinction radicale du droit pénal et de la responsabilité civile, une étude approfondie du droit positif révèle une tendance générale et profonde à la confusion des deux disciplines. Face à ce paradoxe, le juriste s’interroge : comment articuler le droit civil et le droit pénal de la responsabilité ? Pour y répondre, cette thèse suggère d’abandonner l’approche traditionnelle de la matière, consistant à la tenir pour une simple catégorie de classement des différentes branches, civile et pénale, du droit de la responsabilité. La responsabilité juridique est présentée comme une institution autonome et générale organisant la réaction du système à la perturbation anormale de l’équilibre social. Quant au droit de la responsabilité civile et au droit criminel, ils ne sont plus conçus que comme les applications techniques de cette institution en droit positif.Sur le fondement de cette approche renouvelée et par le prisme de l’étude des conditions de la responsabilité en droit privé, la thèse propose un ordonnancement technique et rationnel du droit pénal et de la responsabilité civile susceptible de fournir les principes directeurs d’une véritable théorie générale de la responsabilité juridique. En tant qu’institution générale, celle-ci engendre à la fois un concept de responsabilité, composé des exigences de dégradation d’un intérêt juridiquement protégé, d’anormalité et de causalité juridique et qui fonde la convergence du droit pénal et du droit civil, et un système de responsabilité, qui en commande les divergences et pousse le premier vers la protection de l’intérêt général et le second vers celle des victimes.

While the radical distinction between criminal law and civil liability is classically taught, a thorough survey of positive law reveals a general and profound trend towards a confusion of these two disciplines. Faced with this paradox, the jurist wonders : how to articulate the civil and criminal laws of responsibility ? To answer this question, the thesis suggests abandoning the traditional approach of the subject, which consists in treating it as a mere category of classification of the different branches, civil and criminal, of responsibility/liability. Legal responsibility is presented as an autonomous and general institution organizing the response from the system to abnormal disturbance of social equilibrium. Civil liability law and criminal law are, as far as they are concerned, henceforth conceived as the mere technical applications of this institution in positive law.On the basis of this new approach and through the prism of the study of liability conditions in private law, the thesis proposes a technical and rational organization of criminal law and civil liability that may provide the guiding principles of a real general theory of legal responsibility. As a general institution, it gives not only a concept of responsibility, requiring degradation of a legally protected interest, abnormality and legal causation, and establishing the convergence of criminal…

Advisors/Committee Members: Saint-Pau, Jean-Christophe (thesis director), Wicker, Guillaume (thesis director).

Subjects/Keywords: Anormalité; Antijuridicité; Bien juridique; Causalité juridique; Causalité; Cause étrangère; Cessation de l’illicite; Complicité; Contrainte; Culpabilité; Dangerosité; Discernement; Dol général; Dol spécial; Dommage; Droit des obligations; Droit pénal; Faits justificatifs; Faute simple; Faute; Fautes qualifiées; Force majeure; Illicéité; Immunités de fonction; Imprudence consciente; Imprudence inconsciente; Imputabilité; Infraction impossible; Infraction; Intention; Mobile; Personnalité juridique; Personnalité morale; Préjudice écologique; Préjudice extrapatrimonial; Préjudice patrimonial; Préjudice; Présomptions; Principe de précaution; Responsabilité civile; Responsabilité contractuelle; Responsabilité des personnes morales; Responsabilité du fait d’autrui; Responsabilité du fait des choses; Responsabilité du fait personnel; Responsabilité extracontractuelle; Responsabilité juridique; Responsabilité pénale; Responsabilité pour faute; Responsabilité préventive; Responsabilité sans faute; Résultat légal; Risque; Tentative; Troubles du voisinage; Volonté; Abnormality; Aggravated faults; Attempt; Causation; Cessation of illegality; Civil liability; Complicity; Duress; Contractual liability; Corporate personality; Crime; Criminal law; Criminal liability; Culpability; Damage; Dangerousness; Discernment; Dolus directus; Dolus specialis; Ecological damage; External cause; Fault; Fault-based liability; Force majeure; Functional immunities; Harm; Illegality; Impossible crime; Individual responsibility; Intent; Justifications; Law of obligations; Legal causation; Legal consequences; Legal personality; Legal property; Legal responsibility; Liability of corporations; Material damage; Mere faults; Moral damage; Motive; Neighbourhood disturbances; Precautionary principle; Presumptions; Preventive responsibility; Recklessness; Negligence; Responsibility for the actions of things; Risk; Strict liability; Tortious liability; Vicarious responsibility; Wilfulness; 340

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Lagoutte, J. (2012). Les conditions de la responsabilité en droit privé : éléments pour une théorie générale de la responsabilité juridique : The conditions of responsibility in private law : elements for a general theory of legal responsibility. (Doctoral Dissertation). Université Montesquieu – Bordeaux IV. Retrieved from http://www.theses.fr/2012BOR40032

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Lagoutte, Julien. “Les conditions de la responsabilité en droit privé : éléments pour une théorie générale de la responsabilité juridique : The conditions of responsibility in private law : elements for a general theory of legal responsibility.” 2012. Doctoral Dissertation, Université Montesquieu – Bordeaux IV. Accessed April 10, 2020. http://www.theses.fr/2012BOR40032.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Lagoutte, Julien. “Les conditions de la responsabilité en droit privé : éléments pour une théorie générale de la responsabilité juridique : The conditions of responsibility in private law : elements for a general theory of legal responsibility.” 2012. Web. 10 Apr 2020.

Vancouver:

Lagoutte J. Les conditions de la responsabilité en droit privé : éléments pour une théorie générale de la responsabilité juridique : The conditions of responsibility in private law : elements for a general theory of legal responsibility. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Université Montesquieu – Bordeaux IV; 2012. [cited 2020 Apr 10]. Available from: http://www.theses.fr/2012BOR40032.

Council of Science Editors:

Lagoutte J. Les conditions de la responsabilité en droit privé : éléments pour une théorie générale de la responsabilité juridique : The conditions of responsibility in private law : elements for a general theory of legal responsibility. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Université Montesquieu – Bordeaux IV; 2012. Available from: http://www.theses.fr/2012BOR40032

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